2017
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Dynamic Instability Analysis of Embedded Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes under Combined Static and Periodic Axial Loads using Floquet–Lyapunov Theory
Dynamic Instability Analysis of Embedded Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes under Combined Static and Periodic Axial Loads using Floquet–Lyapunov Theory
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_535394.html
1
The dynamic instability of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), doublewalled carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and triplewalled carbon nanotubes (TWCNT) embedded in an elastic medium under combined static and periodic axial loads are investigated using Floquet–Lyapunov theory. An elastic multiplebeam model is utilized where the nested slender nanotubes are coupled with each other through the van der Waals (vdW) interlayer interaction. Moreover, a radiusdependent vdW interaction coefficient accounting for the contribution of the vdW interactions between adjacent and nonadjacent layers is considered. The Galerkin’s approximate method on the basis of trigonometric mode shape functions is used to reduce the coupled governing partial differential equations to a system of extended MathieuHill equations. Applying Floquet–Lyapunov theory, the effects of elastic medium, length, number of layers and exciting frequencies on the instability conditions of CNTs are investigated. Results show that elastic medium, length of CNTs, number of layer and exciting frequency have significant effect on instability conditions of multiwalled CNTs.
0
The dynamic instability of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), doublewalled carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and triplewalled carbon nanotubes (TWCNT) embedded in an elastic medium under combined static and periodic axial loads are investigated using Floquet–Lyapunov theory. An elastic multiplebeam model is utilized where the nested slender nanotubes are coupled with each other through the van der Waals (vdW) interlayer interaction. Moreover, a radiusdependent vdW interaction coefficient accounting for the contribution of the vdW interactions between adjacent and nonadjacent layers is considered. The Galerkin’s approximate method on the basis of trigonometric mode shape functions is used to reduce the coupled governing partial differential equations to a system of extended MathieuHill equations. Applying Floquet–Lyapunov theory, the effects of elastic medium, length, number of layers and exciting frequencies on the instability conditions of CNTs are investigated. Results show that elastic medium, length of CNTs, number of layer and exciting frequency have significant effect on instability conditions of multiwalled CNTs.
5
18
Habib
Ramezannejad
Habib
Ramezannejad
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ramsar branch, Islamic Azad University, Ramsar, Iran
Iran
h.ramezannejad@iauramsar.ac.ir
Hemad
Keshavarzpour
Hemad
Keshavarzpour
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rasht branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
Iran
hkeshavarzpour@iaurasht.ac.ir
Reza
Ansari
Reza
Ansari
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan
Iran
r_ansari@guilan.ac.ir
Dynamic instability
Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
MathieuHill model
Floquet–Lyapunov theory
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Tylikowski, “Instability of thermally induced vibrations of carbon nanotubes,” Arch. Appl. Mech., vol. 78, pp. 49–60, Nov. 2007.##[7] Q. Wang, K. M. Liew, and W. H. Duan, “Modeling of the mechanical instability of carbon nanotubes,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 46, pp. 285–290, 2008.##[8] L. Wang and Q. Ni, “On vibration and instability of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid,” Comput. Mater. Sci., vol. 43, pp. 399–402, Aug. 2008.##[9] L. Wang, Q. Ni, and M. Li, “Buckling instability of doublewall carbon nanotubes conveying fluid,” Comput. Mater. Sci., vol. 44, pp. 821–825, 2008.##[10] Q. Wang, “Torsional instability of carbon nanotubes encapsulating C60 fullerenes,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 47, pp. 507–512, 2009.##[11] Y. Fu, R. Bi, and P. Zhang, “Nonlinear dynamic instability of doublewalled carbon nanotubes under periodic excitation,” Acta Mech. Solida Sin., vol. 22, pp. 206–212, 2009.##[12] E. Ghavanloo, F. Daneshmand, and M. Rafiei, “Vibration and instability analysis of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid and resting on a linear viscoelastic Winkler foundation,” Phys. E LowDimensional Syst. Nanostructures, vol. 42, pp. 2218–2224, 2010.##[13] E. Ghavanloo and S. A. Fazelzadeh, “Flowthermoelastic vibration and instability analysis of viscoelastic carbon nanotubes embedded in viscous fluid,” Phys. E LowDimensional Syst. Nanostructures, vol. 44, pp. 17–24, 2011.##[14] T. Natsuki, T. Tsuchiya, Q. Q. Ni, and M. Endo, “Torsional elastic instability of doublewalled carbon nanotubes,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 48, pp. 4362–4368, 2010.##[15] W. H. Duan, Q. Wang, Q. Wang, and K. M. Liew, “Modeling the Instability of Carbon Nanotubes: From Continuum Mechanics to Molecular Dynamics,” J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med., vol. 1, pp. 11001, 2010.##[16] L.L. Ke and Y.S. Wang, “Flowinduced vibration and instability of embedded doublewalled carbon nanotubes based on a modified couple stress theory,” Phys. E Lowdimensional Syst. Nanostructures, vol. 43, pp. 1031–1039, Mar. 2011.##[17] T.P. Chang and M.F. Liu, “Flowinduced instability of doublewalled carbon nanotubes based on nonlocal elasticity theory,” Phys. E Lowdimensional Syst. Nanostructures, vol. 43, pp. 1419–1426, Jun. 2011.##[18] T.P. Chang and M.F. Liu, “Small scale effect on flowinduced instability of doublewalled carbon nanotubes,” Eur. J. Mech.  A/Solids, vol. 30, pp. 992–998, Nov. 2011.##[19] Y. X. Zhen, B. Fang, and Y. Tang, “Thermalmechanical vibration and instability analysis of fluidconveying double walled carbon nanotubes embedded in viscoelastic medium,” Phys. E LowDimensional Syst. Nanostructures, vol. 44, pp. 379–385, 2011.##[20] J.X. Shi, T. Natsuki, X.W. Lei, and Q.Q. Ni, “Buckling Instability of Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscope Probe Clamped in an Elastic Medium,” J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med., vol. 3, p. 20903, 2012.##[21] M. A. KazemiLari, S. A. Fazelzadeh, and E. Ghavanloo, “Nonconservative instability of cantilever carbon nanotubes resting on viscoelastic foundation,” Phys. E LowDimensional Syst Nanostructures, vol. 44, pp. 1623–1630, 2012.##[22] J. Choi, O. Song, and S.K. Kim, “Nonlinear stability characteristics of carbon nanotubes conveying fluids,” Acta Mech., vol. 224, pp. 1383–1396, 2013.##[23] A. Ghorbanpour Arani, M. R. Bagheri, R. Kolahchi, and Z. Khoddami Maraghi, “Nonlinear vibration and instability of fluidconveying DWBNNT embedded in a viscoPasternak medium using modified couple stress theory,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., vol. 27, pp. 2645–2658, Sep. 2013.##[24] M. M. Seyyed Fakhrabadi, A. Rastgoo, and M. Taghi Ahmadian, “Sizedependent instability of carbon nanotubes under electrostatic actuation using nonlocal elasticity,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., vol. 80, pp. 144–152, Mar. 2014.##[25] Y.Z. Wang and F.M. Li, “Dynamical parametric instability of carbon nanotubes under axial harmonic excitation by nonlocal continuum theory,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 95, pp. 19–23, Aug. 2016.##[26] X. Wang, W. D. Yang, and S. Yang, “Dynamic stability of carbon nanotubes reinforced composites,” Appl. Math. Model., vol. 38, pp. 2934–2945, 2014.##[27] F. AghaDavoudi , M. Hashemian, “Dynamic Stability of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Based on Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory” Journal of Solid Mechanics in Engineering, Volume 8, pp 111, 2015.##[28] S. Safari , M. Hashemian, “Dynamic Stability of Nano FGM Beam Using Timoshenko Theory” Journal of Solid Mechanics in Engineering, Volume 8, pp 239250, 2015.##[29] P. Friedman, C. E. Hammond, and T. H. Woo, “Efficient Numerical Treatment of Periodic Systems with Application to Stability Problems,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., vol. 11, pp. 1117–1136, 1977.##]
1

The Effect of Heat Treatment on Springing of AISI301
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_537095.html
1
AISI 301 stainless steel is a frequently used metal, especially in high temperature demands and or in part with high corrosion risk. Thin spring steel plates can be used as expansions of heat furnaces insulation and variety of all other springs. The present study has assessed the effects of temperature and thermal treatment time span on the microstructure of stainless steel 301 to achieve elasticity and found out that microstructure gets smaller. As well as the Martensitic ά phase in the sample distributes uniformly after thermal treatment at 450 ºC for 20 minutes then water quenched in 10 ºC. By using Xray diffraction, it can be found that the reduction in crystalline size of the Martensite ά and increasing in Martensite volume fraction is the cause of the elasticity of the samples. All obtained results confirmed by Ferittscope test.
0

19
26


Majid
Karimian
Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch
Iran
mkarimian@iaukhsh.ac.ir


Ehsan
Nourouzi Esfahani
Young Researchers and elite club, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch
Iran
noroziehsan80@gmail.com


Mohammad
Bagherboom
MSc., Department of Metallurgy Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology
Iran
m_bagherboum@yahoo.com
Thin spring steel plate
Martensite ά
Crystal Grain Size
[[1] S.K Paul, N. Stanford, and T. Hilditch, "Austenite plasticity mechanisms and their behavior during cyclic loading," International Journal of Fatique., vol. 106, pp. 185195, Jan 2018.##[2] W. Zeng, and H. Yuan, "Mechanical behavior and fatigue performance of austenitic stainless steel under consideration of martensitic phase transformation," Materials Science and Engineering., vol. 679, pp. 249257, Jan 2017.##[3] S. Pirestany, A. Karmanpur, and A. Najafizadeh, "Effect of Operating Conditions on the Formation of Martensite Induced by Rolling Deformation and Resulted Morphology in 201 Austenitic Stainless Steel" Conference, Steel Symposium 93, Yazd, Ardakan Mineral and Industrial Company, Iran, vol. 1, Feb 2015.[in persian]##[4] P.M. Ahmedabadi, V. Kain, and A. Agrawal, "Modelling kinetics of straininduced martensite transformation during plastic deformation of austenitic stainless steel," Materials & Design., vol. 109, pp. 466475, Nov 2016.##[5] K.H. Lo, C.H. Shek, and J.K.L. Lai, "Recent developments in stainless steels," Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports., vol. 65, pp. 39104, May 2009.##[6] S. Pirestany, "Investigating the effect of straininduced martensite morphology on formation of nano/ultra fine grained structure in 201 austenitic stainless steel through martensite themomechanical process," Isfahan University of Technology., Msc degree thesis, 2014.[in persian]##[7] W.S. Lee, and C.F. Lin, "The morphologies and characteristics of impactinduced martensite in 304L stainless steel," Scripta materialia., vol. 43, pp. 777782, Sep 2000. ##[8] M. Ahmadi, B.M. Sadeghi, and H. Arabi, "Experimental and numerical investigation of Vbent anisotropic 304L SS sheet with springforward considering deformationinduced martensitic transformation," Materials & Design., vol. 123, pp. 211222, June 2017.##[9] S. Pirestany, A. Karmanpur, and A. Najafizadeh, "Effect of Martensite Induced by Strain Morphology on Microstructure Changes During Back Annealing after Thermo Mechanical Treatment of Martensite in 201 Austenitic stainless steel," Conference, Steel Symposium 94, Kish International Convention Center, Kish, Iran, vol. 1, Feb 2016.[in persian]##[10] F. Gauzzi, R. Montanari, G. Principi, and M.E. Tata, "AISI 304 steel: anomalous evolution of martensitic phase following heat treatments at 400 °C" Materials Science and Engineering: A., vol. 438440, pp. 202206, Nov 2006.##[11] P.L. Mangonon, and G. Thomas, "Structure and properties of thermalmechanically treated 304 stainless steel," Metallurgical Transactions., vol. 1, pp. 15871594, June 1970.##[12] S. Bajda, W. Ratuszek, M. Krzyzanowski, and D. Retraint, "Inhomogeneity of plastic deformation in austenitic stainless steel after surface mechanical attrition treatment," Surface and Coatings Technology., vol. 329, pp. 202211, Nov 2017.##[13] R. Naraghi," Martensitic Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steels," Msc degree thesis, 2009.##[14] J. Singh, "Influence of deformation on the transformation of austenitic stainless steels," Journal of Materials Science., vol. 20, pp. 31573166, Sep 1985. ##]
1

Structural Analysis of Unsymmetric Laminated Composite Timoshenko Beam Subjected to Moving Load
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_537096.html
1
The structural analysis of an infinite unsymmetric laminated composite Timoshenko beam over Pasternak viscoelastic foundation under moving load is studied. The beam is subjected to a travelling concentrated load. Closed form steady state solutions, based on the firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT) are developed. In this analysis, the effect of bendtwist coupling is also evaluated. Selecting of an appropriate displacement field for deflection of the composite beam and using the principle of total minimum potential energy, the governing differential equations of motion are obtained and solved using complex infinite Fourier transformation method. The dynamic response of unsymmetric angleply laminated beam under moving load has been compared with existing results in the literature and a very good agreement is observed. The results for variation of the deflection, bending moment, shear force and bending stress are presented. In addition, the influences of the stiffness, shear layer viscosity of foundation, velocity of the moving load and also different thicknesses of the beam on the structural response are studied.
0

27
40


Mohammad Javad
Rezvani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran.
Iran
m.rezvani@semnaniau.ac.ir
First shear deformation theory
Unsymmetric
Composite beam
Pasternak viscoelastic foundation
Moving load
[[1] D. G. Duffy, "The response of an infinite railroad track to a moving, vibrating mass," Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 57, pp. 6673, 1990.##[2] C. Cai, Y. Cheung, and H. Chan, "Dynamic response of infinite continuous beams subjected to a moving force—an exact method," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 123, pp. 461472, 1988.##[3] S. Mackertich, "The response of an elastically supported infinite Timoshenko beam to a moving vibrating mass," The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 101, pp. 337340, 1997.##[4] V.H. Nguyen and D. Duhamel, "Finite element procedures for nonlinear structures in moving coordinates. Part II: Infinite beam under moving harmonic loads," Computers & Structures, vol. 86, pp. 20562063, 2008.##[5] S. P. Patil, "Response of infinite railroad track to vibrating mass," Journal of engineering mechanics, vol. 114, pp. 688703, 1988.##[6] R. U. A. Uzzal, R. B. Bhat, and W. Ahmed, "Dynamic response of a beam subjected to moving load and moving mass supported by Pasternak foundation," Shock and Vibration, vol. 19, pp. 205220, 2012.##[7] H. Ding, K.L. Shi, L.Q. Chen, and S.P. Yang, "Dynamic response of an infinite Timoshenko beam on a nonlinear viscoelastic foundation to a moving load," Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 73, pp. 285298, 2013.##[8] A. Mallik, S. Chandra, and A. B. Singh, "Steadystate response of an elastically supported infinite beam to a moving load," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 291, pp. 11481169, 2006.##[9] S. Lu and D. Xuejun, "Dynamic analysis to infinite beam under a moving line load with uniform velocity," Applied mathematics and mechanics, vol. 19, pp. 367373, 1998.##[10] A. D. Kerr, "Elastic and viscoelastic foundation models," Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 31, pp. 491498, 1964.##[11] Y.H. Chen, Y.H. Huang, and C.T. Shih, "Response of an infinite Timoshenko beam on a viscoelastic foundation to a harmonic moving load," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 241, pp. 809824, 2001.##[12] L. Sun, "A closedform solution of a BernoulliEuler beam on a viscoelastic foundation under harmonic line loads," Journal of Sound and vibration, vol. 242, pp. 619627, 2001.##[13] S. Verichev and A. Metrikine, "Instability of a bogie moving on a flexibly supported Timoshenko beam," Journal of sound and vibration, vol. 253, pp. 653668, 2002.##[14] T. Liu and Q. Li, "Transient elastic wave propagation in an infinite Timoshenko beam on viscoelastic foundation," International journal of solids and structures, vol. 40, pp. 32113228, 2003.##[15] M. Kargarnovin and D. Younesian, "Dynamics of Timoshenko beams on Pasternak foundation under moving load," Mechanics Research Communications, vol. 31, pp. 713723, 2004.##[16] M. Kargarnovin, D. Younesian, D. Thompson, and C. Jones, "Response of beams on nonlinear viscoelastic foundations to harmonic moving loads," Computers & Structures, vol. 83, pp. 18651877, 2005.##[17] G. Muscolino and A. Palmeri, "Response of beams resting on viscoelastically damped foundation to moving oscillators," International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 44, pp. 13171336, 2007.##[18] F. F. Çalım, "Dynamic analysis of beams on viscoelastic foundation," European Journal of MechanicsA/Solids, vol. 28, pp. 469476, 2009.##[19] M. Kadivar and S. Mohebpour, "Finite element dynamic analysis of unsymmetric composite laminated beams with shear effect and rotary inertia under the action of moving loads," Finite elements in Analysis and Design, vol. 29, pp. 259273, 1998.##[20] M. Rezvani and K. M. Khorramabadi, "Dynamic analysis of a composite beam subjected to a moving load," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, vol. 223, pp. 15431554, 2009.##[21] M. J. Rezvani, M. H. Kargarnovin, and D. Younesian, "Dynamic analysis of composite beam subjected to harmonic moving load based on the thirdorder shear deformation theory," Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 6, pp. 409418, 2011.##[22] H. Abramovich and A. Livshits, "Free vibrations of nonsymmetric crossply laminated composite beams," Journal of sound and vibration, vol. 176, pp. 597612, 1994.##[23] J. N. Reddy, Mechanics of laminated composite plates and shells: theory and analysis: CRC press, 2004.##[24] A. David Wunsch, "Complex Variables With Applications [M]," ed: Reading, Mass: AddisonWesley Publishing Company, 1994.##[25] L. Fryba, Vibration of solids and structures under moving loads: Thomas Telford, 1999.##]
1

Trajectory Tracking of TwoWheeled Mobile Robots, Using LQR Optimal Control Method, Based On Computational Model of KHEPERA IV
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_537824.html
1
This paper presents a modelbased control design for trajectory tracking of twowheeled mobile robots based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) optimal control. The model proposed in this article has been implemented on a computational model which is obtained from kinematic and dynamic relations of KHEPERA IV. The purpose of control is to track a predefined reference trajectory with the best possible precision considering the dynamic limits of the robot. Applying several challenging paths to the system showed that the control design is able to track applied reference paths with an acceptable tracking error.
0

41
50


Amin
Abbasi
Department of ٍElectrical Engineering, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Control Devision
Iran
amin.a134@yahoo.com


Ata Jahangir
Moshayedi
Department of Electronic Science, Pune Savitribai Phule Pune University,Pune, 411007, India
Iran
moshayedi@iaukhsh.ac.ir
Trajectory tracking
TwoWheeled Mobile Robots
LQR
KHEPERA IV
1

Vibration Analysis of FG MicroBeam Based on the Third Order Shear Deformation and Modified Couple Stress Theories
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_537825.html
1
In this paper, free vibration analysis and forced vibration analysis of FG doubly clamped microbeams is studied based on the third order shear deformation and modified couple stress theories. The size dependent dynamic equilibrium equations and both the classical and nonclassical boundary conditions are derived using a variational approach. It is assumed that all properties of the FG microbeam follow a power law form through thickness. The motion equations are solved by employing Furrier series in conjunction with Galerkin method. Also, effects of aspect ratio, power index and dimensionless length scale parameter on the natural frequencies and amplitudeexcite frequency curves are investigated. Findings indicate that dimensionless frequencies are strongly dependent on the values of the material length scale parameter and power index. The numerical results of this study indicate that if the thickness of the beam is in the order of the material length scale parameter, size effects are more significant.
0

51
66


Mehdi
Alimoradzadeh
ِDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Iran
vib320@yahoo.com


Mehdi
Salehi
ِDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Iran
mehsa72105195@yahoo.com


Sattar
Mohammadi Esfarjani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Iran
satar.iran@gmail.com
Vibration
Functionally graded material
Modified couple stress
Third order shear deformation
1

Experimental investigation of the effects of temperature and nanoparticles volume fraction on the viscosity of Newtonian hybrid nanofluid
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_539334.html
1
In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted on the rheological behavior of Water (80%) and Ethyleneglycol (20%) in presence of Al2O3MWCNTs hybrid nanomaterials. For this purpose, nanofluid samples were prepared by suspending the nanomaterials in a mixture of water and EG with solid volume fractions of 0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25% and 0.5% Viscosity measurements were performed at various shear rates and in the temperatures range of 25 to 50⁰C. Experimental data showed that all hybrid nanofluid samples had Newtonian behavior. also Results showed that nanofluid viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and augmented with increasing the volume fraction. Eventually, a new accurate correlation was developed to assist the calculation of the viscosity of the Al2O3MWCNTs/waterEG at different temperatures and volume fractions
0

67
74


Ashkan
Afshari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran Markazi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 13185768, Iran
Iran
ashkan.afshari2016@gmail.com


Mohammad
Eftekhari Yazdi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran markazi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Iran
moh.eftekhari_yazdi@iauctb.ac.ir
Viscosity
NonNewtonian behavior
Nanofluids
Aluminum oxide
Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
[[1] P.K. Namburu, D.P. Kulkarni, D. Misra, D.K. Das. "Viscosity of copper oxide nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol and water mixture," Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 32, No. 2, 397402, 2007.##[2] M. Afrand, D. Toghraie and B. Ruhani, "Effects of temperature and nanoparticles concentration on rheological behavior of Fe3O4–Ag/EG hybrid nanofluid: an experimental study," Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 77, pp. 3844, 2016.##[3] M. Baratpour, A. Karimipour, M. Afrand and S. Wongwises, "Effects of temperature and concentration on the viscosity of nanofluids made of singlewall carbon nanotubes in ethylene glycol.," INT COMMUN HEAT MASS., pp. 74:10813, 2016.##[4] H. Eshgarf, M. Afrand, "An experimental study on rheological behavior of nonNewtonian hybrid nanocoolant for application in cooling and heating systems," Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 76, pp. 221227, 2016.##[5] M. Hemmat Esfe, "The Investigation of Effects of Temperature and Nanoparticles Volume Fraction on the Viscosity of Copper OxideEthyleneglycol Nanofluids," Periodica Polytechnica. Chemical Engineering, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 43, 2018.##[6] M. Afrand, D. Toghraie, B. Ruhani. "Effects of temperature and nanoparticles concentration on rheological behavior of Fe3O4–Ag/EG hybrid nanofluid: An experimental study," Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 77, pp. 3844, 2016.##[7] M.B. Moghaddam, E.K. Goharshadi, M.H. Entezari, P. Nancarrow, Preparation, "characterization and rheological properties of grapheme–glycerol nanofluids," Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 231, pp. 365–372, 2013.##]