ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental investigation of the effect of suspended nanoparticles into conventional fluid on the heat transfer improvement
Heat Transfer has special importance in engineering applications. So, researchers have suggested different new idea to increase heat transfer and using nanofluid is one of these methods In recent years, new methods have been used. One of these methods is the use of nanofluids, ., because nanofluids have higher heat transfer potential than base conventional fluids. In this investigation effect of suspended CuO nanoparticles with volume fraction of 0.005 into base water fluid is considered under turbulent flow regime inside double tube counter heat exchanger. It was observed that suspending pre-mentioned amount of nanoparticle augmentate heat transfer capability of conventional water fluid. On the other side, it leads to increase pressure drop and friction factor of water base fluid. Finally they conclude that positive effect of heat transfer augmentation is so stronger than negative effect of increasing pressure drop and friction factor that motivate to utilize this nanofluid in practical applications.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_519391_97480a7c61c18f6e7277ad480662e1e6.pdf
2016-07-22
209
220
increase heat transfer
Heat Exchanger
Nanofluid
Arash
KarimiPour
arashkarimipour@gmail.com
1
- Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
davood
toghraie
davoodtoghraie@gmail.com
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
AUTHOR
omid ali
akbari
akbariomid11@gmail.com
3
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran
AUTHOR
Majid
Zarringhalam
majidzarringhalam1981@gmail.com
4
PhD student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Gholamreza
Ahmadi Sheikh Shabani
5
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] Masuda H., Ebata A., Teramae K., Hishinuma N., Alternation of thermal conductivity and viscosity of liquid by dispersing ultra-fine particles (Dispersion of g-Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 ultra-fine particles), Netsu Bussei, Vol 7, 1993, pp 227–233
1
[2] Choi, S.U.S., Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, The Proceedings of the 1995 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, San Francisco, USA, ASME, FED, 231/MD,Vol 66, 1995, pp99–105
2
[3] Pak, B.C., and Cho, Y., Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxide particle, Experimental Heat Transfer, 11 (1998) 151–170.
3
[4] Xuan, Y., and Li, Q., Investigation on convective heat transfer and flow features of nanofluids, Journal of Heat Transfer, 125 (2003) pp 151–155.
4
[5] Wen, D., and Ding, Y., Experimental investigation into convective heat transfer of nanofluid at the entrance region under laminar flow conditions, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 47 (2004) pp 5181–5188.
5
[6] Heris, S.Z., Etemad, S.G., Esfahany, M.N., Experimental investigation of oxide nanofluids laminar flow convective heat transfer, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 33 (2006) 529.
6
[7] Heris, S.Z., Esfahany, M.N., Etemad, S.G., Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer of Al2O3/Water nanofluid in circular tube, Int. J. Heat Fluids Flow, 28 (2) (2007) 203.
7
[8] Duangthongsuk, W., and Wongwises, S., Heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop characteristics of TiO2–Water nanofluid in a double-tube counter flow heat exchanger, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52 (2008) pp 2059–2067.
8
[9] Fotukian, S.M., and Nasr Esfahany M., Experimental study of turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop of diluteCuO/Water nanofluid inside a circular tube, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 37 (2010) pp 214–219.
9
[10] Amrollahi, A., Rashidi, A.M., Lotfi, R., EmamiMeibodi, M., Kashefi, K., Convection heat transfer of functionalized MWNT in aqueous fluids in laminar andturbulent flow at the entrance region, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 37 (2010) 717–723.
10
[11] Hashemi, S.M., and Akhavan-Behabadi, M.A., An empirical study on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of CuO–base oilnanofluid flow in a horizontal helically coiled tube under constant heat flux, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 39 (2012) pp 144–151.
11
[12] Hojjat, M., Etemad, S.Gh., Bagheri, R., Thibault,Convective heat transfer of non Newtonian nanofluids througha uniformly heated circular tube, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50 (2011) pp 525-531.
12
[13] Kayhani, M.H., Soltanzadeh, H., Heyhat, M.M., Nazari, M., Kowsary, F. Experimental study of convective heat transfer and pressure drop ofTiO2/Water nanofluid, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 39 (2012) pp 456–462.
13
[14] SyamSundar, L., Ravi Kumar, N.T., Naik, M.T., Sharma, K.V., Effect of full length twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and frictionfactor enhancement with Fe3O4 magnetic nanofluid inside a plain tube:An experimental study, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55 (2012) pp 2761–2768.
14
[15] Blasius, H., Grenzschichten in Flussigkeitenmitkleiner Reibung (German), Z. Math. Phys, 56 (1908) pp 1–37.
15
[16] Fakoor Pakdaman, M., Akhavan-Behabadi, M.A., Razi, P., An experimental investigation on thermo-physical properties and overallperformance of MWCNT/heat transfer oil nanofluid flow inside verticalhelically coiled tubes, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 40 (2012) pp 103–111.
16
[17] Abbasian Arani, and A.A., Amani, J., Experimental investigation of diameter effect on heat transfer performance and pressure drop of TiO2–Water nanofluid, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 44 (2013) pp 520–533.
17
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Producing the titanium nano composite statically compacted with the different pressure and investigation of the mechanical properties
Building the Nano composites for getting material with combinational properties and improving properties of currently used material has been taken significant attention. One of the ways of building Nano composites is using a method known as powder metallurgy. Because with this method not only wastes are decreased to minimum but we can also mix the materials with high melting point with the materials with low melting point which is a difficult thing to do with foundry method. In this research titanium alloy for improvement in its mechanical properties is mixed with silicon carbide reinforcing. Knowing the fact that silicon carbide is in Nano scale these two materials start building Nano composites. The powder metallurgy method is the best way for mixing these two materials together. To make sure that the properties of the made alloy is similar to the foundry alloy, the static compression methods are used. For comparison the results, two factors such as the Nano silicon carbide percentage and the static compression pressure are. Also, Density experiment, observation of grain boundaries using a scanning electron microscope, pressure test and the hardness experiment was done on it.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_521757_d3ac66d259d2e6ad21bd4eba687341a0.pdf
2016-07-22
221
230
Nano composites
Powder Metallurgy
static compression pressure
titanium and silicon carbide reinforcing
SEYED MEHRAN
ZOHALI
m.zohali1987@gmail.com
1
Master of Science, Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan
AUTHOR
Farzad
Fariba
farzad.fariba@gmail.com
2
Assistant Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Da Vincil. L., Fracture Mechanic, Bibilioteca Ambrosiana, 1894, 54.
1
[2]Galilei G., Dialogues concerning two new sciences, Evanston, University of Illinois Press, 35-78.
2
[3]Griffith A.A., The phenomena of Ruture and Flow In Solid, Phil Trans. Royal Soc.,221, 1921, Pp 163-167.
3
[4] Anderson T.L, Fracture Mechanics, CRC Press 1994.
4
[5] Inglis C.E., Stresses In A Plate Due To The Presence Of Cracks And Sharp Corners, Transactions of The Institute of Naval-Architects, 55, 1913, pp.219-241
5
[6]Irwin G.R., Fracture Dynamics, fracture of metals, American society for metals, Cleveland, 1948 , pp.147-166.
6
[7]Orowan E., Fracture of solids, reports on progress in physics, Vol. XII., 1948, pp.185-232.
7
[8]Mott N.F., Fracture of Metals: Theoretical Considerations, Engineering, 165, 1948, pp.16-18.
8
[9]Irwin G.E., Onset of fast crack propagation in high strength steel and aluminum alloys, sagamore research conference proceeding, 2, 1956, pp. 289-305.
9
[10]Westergaard H.M., Bearing pressures and cracks, journal of applied mechanics, 6,1939, pp. 49-53.
10
[11]Irwin G.R., Fracture Dynamics, fracture of metals, American society for metals, 1948, , pp.147-166.
11
[12]Williams M.L., On the stress distribution at the base of a stationary crack, journal of applied mechanics, 24, 1957, pp.109-114.
12
[13]Wells A.A., The condition of fast fracture in aluminul alloys wiyh particular reference to comet failures, British welding research association report, April 1955, pp. 76.
13
[14]Winne D.H., Wundt B.M. Application of the Griffith-Irwin theory of crack propagation to the bursting behavior of disks, including analytical and experimental studies, Transactions of the American society of mechanical engineers, 80, 1958, pp. 1643-1655.
14
[15] Paris P.C., A rational analytic theory of fatigue”, The trend in engineering, vol. 13, 1961, pp. 9-14.
15
[16] Wells A.A., Unstable crack propagation in metals: cleavage and fast fracture. Proc Crack Propagation Symposium, 1, 1961, pp.84.
16
[17] Rice JR, Rosengren GF, Plane strain deformation near a crack tip in a power law hardening materials. Journal of Mechanical Physic Solids, 16,1968, pp. 1–12.
17
[18]Oliver J., Continuum Modeling of Strong Discontinuities in Mechanics, International journal for numerical methods in engineering 17, 1995, pp. 49-61.
18
[19]Rashid MM., The Arbitrary local mesh refinement method, An computer method in applied Mechanics and Engineering, 5, 1995, pp.45-58.
19
[20]Moes N., Dolbow J., Belytschko T., A finite element method for crack growth without re-
20
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analytical and numerical modeling of erosive projectiles into steel fiber reinforced concrete target
In this paper, modeling of high speed projectiles with different nose shapes, penetrating into steel fiber reinforced concrete is investigated. This is a novel study because it considers the length to diameter ratio of steel fiber as well as projectile length to diameter ratio and volume fraction of fiber used in concrete matrix on the impact resistance of steel fiber reinforced concrete fibers at high speeds. Numerical simulation is used using LS-DYNA explicit code. The projectiles have an approximate mass of 45 (gr) and their velocities are about 2500 (m/s) penetrating into steel fiber reinforced concrete panel with volume fraction of 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%. In this article the exact behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete confronting metallic projectiles at high speed is predicted. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental work of other investigators and, the results show that ogive nose projectiles are more efficient than other projectiles. In other words, by increasing the projectile length to diameter ratio from 0.5 to 0.9, for flat, hemispherical and ogive projectiles their residual velocities are increased. Also, it is shown that by increasing the volume fraction of steel fibers in concrete matrix, damage of top surface damage is reduced dramatically. The analytical model presented in this paper considers the speed variations of the projectile during the penetration process into steel fiber reinforced concrete is an important achievements this respect.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528802_47938525756fb5a4d258140f654fe446.pdf
2016-07-22
231
244
Erosive Projectiles
penetration
Reinforced Concrete
Steel fiber
Impact Resistance
Mehdi
Hedayatian
hedayatian1361@gmail.com
1
MSc Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran.
AUTHOR
Khodadade
Vahedi
khvahedi@ihu.ac.ir
2
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Jianhua W., Jun L., Haiping Y., The study on steel Fiber reinforced concrete under dynamic compression by damage mechanics method, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6, 2014, pp. 1759-1767.
1
[2] Miamoto A., Nakamura H., Visualization of impact failure behavior for RC slab, Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Concrete under Severe Condition, UBC, 2001.
2
[3] Gao J., Sun W., Morino K., Mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced, high-strength, lightweight concrete, Cement and Concrete Composites, 19, 1997, pp. 307–313.
3
[4] Shahid I., Ahsan A., Holschemacher K., Thomas A., Mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced high strength lightweight self-compacting concrete (SHLSCC), Construction and Building Materials. 98, 2015, pp. 325–333.
4
[5] P.S. Song, S. Hwang, Mechanical properties of high-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete, Construction and Building Materials. 18, 2004, pp. 669–673.
5
[6] Farnam Y., Experimental and simulation study of the impact of high strength fibrous concrete panels, PhD Thesis, Tehran University, Tehran, 2010. (In Persian)
6
[7] Tokgoz S., Dundar C., Tanrikulu A.K., Experimental behavior of steel fiber high strength reinforced concrete and composite columns, Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 74, 2012, pp. 98-107.
7
[8] Murali G., Santhi A. S., Mohan Ganesh G., Empirical Relationship between the Impact Energy and Compressive Strength for Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 73, 2014, pp. 469-473.
8
[9] Zhang X.X., Abd Elazim A.M., Ruiz G., Yu R.C., Fracture behavior of steel Fibre-reinforced concrete at a wide range of loading rates, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 71, 2014, pp. 89-96.
9
[10] Sovják R., Vavřiník T., Máca P., Zatloukal J., Konvalinka P., Experimental Investigation of Ultra-high Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slabs Subjected to Deformable Projectile Impact, Procedia Engineering, 65, 2013, pp. 120–125.
10
[11] Luo X., Sun W., Chan Y.N., Characteristics of high-performance steel fiber-reinforced concrete subject to high velocity impact, Cement and Concrete Research, 30, 2013, pp. 907–914.
11
[12] Huang F., Wu H., Jin Q., Zhang Q., A numerical simulation on the perforation of reinforced concrete targets, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 32, 2005, pp. 173–187.
12
[13] Li Q. M., Reid S. R., Wen H. M., Telford A. R., Local impact effects of hard missiles on concrete targets, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 32, 2005, pp. 224-284.
13
[14] Leppanen C., Concrete subject to fragment impacts, PhD Thesis, Chalmer University of technology, Goteborg, Sweden, 2004.
14
[15] Wen H.M., Xian Y.X., A unified approach for concrete impact, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 77, 2015, pp. 84-96.
15
[16] Nataraja M.C., Dhang N., Gupta A.P., Stress–strain curves for steel-fiber reinforced concrete under compression, Cement and Concrete Composites. 21, 1999, pp. 383–390.
16
[17] Quan X., Birnbaum N. K., Cowler M. S., Gerber B. I., Clegge R. A., Hayhurst C. J., Numerical simulation of structural deformation under shock and impact loads using a coupled multi- solver approach, 5 th Asia- Pacific Conference on Shock and Impact Loads on Structures, 2003.
17
[18] Hallquist J. O., LS-DYNA Theory Manual, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, California, March 2006.
18
[19] Feli S., Bakhtiar M., Determination of Compressive Stress of Metallic Materials Based on Impact Test, Mech. Aerospace J, 8, 2012, pp. 43- 54.
19
[20] Teng L., T. Chu, Yi. An., Chang, Fwu. An., Shen, Bor. Cherng. and Cheng, Ding. Shing., Development and validation of numerical model of steel Fiber reinforced concrete for high-velocity impact, Computational Materials Science, 42, 2008, pp. 90–99.
20
[21] Marsh S. P., LASL shock hugoniot data, University of California, 1980.
21
[22] Gebbeken N., Greulich S., Pietzsch A., Hugoniot properties for concrete determined by full-scale detonation experiments and flyer-plate-impact tests, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 32, 2006, pp. 2017-2031.
22
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Providing a thermodynamic model to simulate the spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas and ethanol mixture
The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel, in recent decades has been proposed. Good combustion properties and cats less than it could be the perfect choice for the next generation. Simulation models can be of great help engine designers. Simulation models to reduce the time and costs for the development of new engines as well as in identifying the technical value that need special attention in the design, are of great importance. In this study the thermodynamic model for the study of thermodynamic parameters of a spark ignition engine fuel mix methane (C2H6O) and ethanol (CH4) is provided. To simulate the engine, the governing equations for modeling the area of combustion engines can be used. This relationship has become in MATLAB code, and finally by drawing diagrams, are analyzed. The results showed that the addition of ethanol to fuel higher percentages of methane, increasing amounts of pressure inside the cylinder, work and heat output (power stage) as well. However, the energy lost through leakage and most pure methane lowest temperature of the burned area is capable.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528803_c0b789847f8da19ae524bf38eb54e1a1.pdf
2016-07-22
245
258
Spark ignition engines
methane and ethanol
thermodynamic simulation
engine performance parameters
Hasan
Zamani
hasanzamani8@gmail.com
1
Mrby- Islamic Azad University Frieden
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Heywood J. B., 1988. “Internal combustion engines fundamentals”, New York, McGraw – Hill. IRIMESCU A., Performance and fuel conversion efficiency of a spark ignition engine fueled with iso-butanol, Applied Energy, 96, pp. 477–483, 2012.
1
[2] Shamekhi A., Khtibzade N., Shamekhi A. H.,2006 “Performance and emissions characteristics of a bifuel SI engine fueled by CNG and gasoline”, ASME paper ICES 2006- 1387.
2
[3] مردی محسن، خلیل آریا شهرام، عبدلعلیپور عدل مهران و جعفرمدار صمد، (1392)، تحلیل عملکرد و آلایندگی موتور اشتعال جرقهای با سوختهای جایگزین متان، متانول و پروپان. سومین همایش ملی سوخت، انرژی و محیط زیست.
3
[4] نوری کزج ر. محسنیانراد ا. ف. (1388)، بررسی اثر استفاده از گاز طبیعی فشرده بر راندمان موتورهای احتراق داخلی. دومین کنفرانس ملی CNG، تهران، شرکت ملی گاز ایران.
4
[5] Tahir M, M. Ali M.S, Salim M.A, Bakar R.A, Fudhail A.M, Hassan M.Z and Abdul Muhaimin M.S. 2015. Performance analysis of a spark ignition engine using compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel. Energy Procedia 68 , 355 – 362
5
[6] جهانیان امید، جزایری سید علی و ابراهیمی رضا، (1385)، مدلسازی ترمودینامیکی یک موتور اشتعال جرقهای گاز طبیعی سوز به شیوه دو ناحیهای با در نظر گرفتن سینتیک شیمیایی. ششمین همایش ملی دانشجویی مهندسی شیمی و پنجمین همایش ملی دانشجویی مهندسی نفت، شهریور 85، دانشگاه اصفهان.
6
[7] Cavalcante Cordeiro de Melo T, Bastos Machado G, Machado RT, Pereira Belchior Jr CR, Pereira PP. Thermodynamic modeling of compression, combustion and expansion processes of gasoline, ethanol and natural gas with experimental validation on a flexible fuel engine. SAE World Congress, 2007-24-0035; 2007.
7
[8] Elfasakhany A. 2014. The Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engines. International Journal of Automotive Engineering Vol. 4, Number 1.
8
[9] French R, and Malone P. 2005. Phase equilibria of ethanol fuel blends. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 5: 228-229.
9
[10] نجفی غلامحسن، قبادیان برات، توکلی هشجین تیمور و رحیمی هادی، (1388)، بررسی پارامترهای احتراق، پارامترهای عملکردی و آلایندگی و شبیهسازی سیکل عملکردی موتورهای اشتعال جرقهای با سوخت مخلوط اتانول و بنزین. سومین کنفرانس سوخت و احتراق، تهران، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، اسفند ماه 1388.
10
[11] Hakan B, Orhan D. 2005. Investigating the effects of LPG on spark ignition engine combustion and performance. Energy Conver Manage 2005;46:2317–33.
11
[12] Pipitone E, Genchi G and Beccari S. 2015. An NTC zone compliant knock onset prediction model for spark ignition engines. Energy Procedia 82, 133 – 140.
12
[13] SALES L. C. M., SODRE J. R., Cold start characteristics of an ethanol-fuelled engine with heated intake air and fuel, Applied Thermal Engineering, 40, pp. 198–201, 2012.
13
[14] VANCOILLIE J., DEMUYNCK J., SILEGHEM L., VAN DE GINSTE M., VERHELST S., Comparison of the renewable transportation fuels, hydrogen and methanol formed from hydrogen, with gasoline – Engine efficiency study, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37, 12, pp. 9914–9924, 2012.
14
[15] کاکایی امیر حسن، نصر آبادی مسعود، (1389)، توسعه یک زیر مدل خود اشتعالی برای پیشبینی کوبش در موتور اشتعال جرقهای. نشریه علمی-پژوهشی سوخت و احتراق. سال سوم، شمارة دوم، پاییز و زمستان 1389. صفحات 75 تا90.
15
[16] Sobiesiak A. 2003. The first and second law analysis of spark ignition engine fuelled with compressed natural gas. SAE paper no. 2003-01-3091 Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers Inc.
16
[17] Ferguson C.R. 1986. Internal Combustion Engines, Applied Thermosciences, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
17
[18] Woschni, G. 1967. A universally applicable equation for the instantaneous heat transfer coefficient in the internal combustion engine, SAE paper no: 670931.
18
[19] Homdoung N, Tippayawong N, and Dussadee N. 2015. Prediction of small spark ignited engine pe rformance using
19
producer gas as fuel. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 5 (2015) 98–103.
20
[20] Yusaf, T. F. Sye Hoe, Fong, Yousoff M. Z. and Hussein I. 2005. Modeling of transient heat Flux in spark ignition engine during combustion and comparisons with experiment. American Journal of Applied Sciences 2 (10): 1438-1444.
21
[21] Juntarakod, P. 2014. A Quasi – dimensional three – zone combustion model of the diesel engine to calculate performances and emission using the diesel – ethanol dual fuel. Contemporary Engineering Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 1, 19 – 37.
22
[22] M. Grill, M. Chiodi. H. Berner and M. Bargende, Calculating the Thermodynamic Properties of Burnt Gas and Vapor Fuel for User-Defined Fuels, MTZ 05|2007, 68, 2007, 398-403.
23
زمانی حسن، ابراهیمی رحیم و بشارتی شاهین. 1393. بررسی تاثیر پیشرسی جرقه، نسبت تراکم و نسبت هم ارزی بر برخی متغیرهای ترمودینامیکی موتور اشتعال جرقهای با سوخت گاز طبیعی. اولین همایش ملی مدیریت انرژیهای نو و پاک. دانشکده شهید مفتح، همدان
24
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Study of the Notching HSS Rolls by CBN Tool using RSM Method
One of the biggest problems of artisans , is notching the high speed steel roller is due to the inability to do this work, become high speed steel roller bearings are disposable. One of the biggest problems of artisans , is notching the high speed steel roller is due to the inability to do this work, become high speed steel roller bearings are disposable.When the roller is placed on the production line, because of the retained austenite make it very hard. High speed roller used in this study is barely above 70 Shc. Our goal is to obtain the optimum machining parameters that it requires a high number of tests that are practically impossible. So in order to achieve optimal machining parameters with the lowest test, RSM method in Minitab software was used. CBN tools performed well in all tests and succeeded with the best cutting speed 25 m/min, 0.05 mm feed and 0.05 mm depth of cut at the time of 1080 seconds, in notching one caliber.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528804_d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e.pdf
2016-07-22
259
268
Hot rolling
HSS roler
Bar
Notching
RSM
Mohsen
Jafari Dinani
jafari62@iaukhsh.ac.ir
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr, Iran.
AUTHOR
Amin
Kolahdooz
aminkolahdooz@iaukhsh.ac.ir
2
Assistant Professor, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Isfahan/Khomeinishahr, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Seyyed Ali
Eftekhari
eftekhari@iaukhsh.ac.ir
3
Assistant Vice Chancellor for Research and Information technology Khomeini's Islamic Azad University City
AUTHOR
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Nanofluid forced convection through a microtube with constant heat flux and slip boundary
Given the need to increase the efficiency of heat transfer in thermal systems, especially systems using nanofluids in microscale and nanoscale heat transfer equipment ideas to improve their performance is very good.In present study, the flow and heat transfer of Water-Cu nanofluid in micro-tube with slip regime with constant wall heat flux numerically simulated with low Reynolds numbers. Slip velocity and temperature jump boundary conditions are also considered along the microtube walls, for first time. The results are presented as the profiles of temperature and velocity. Nusselt number and pressure drop coefficient calculated in interance and full developed region. The effect of slip and using nano particle considerd.It is observed that Nusselt number increases with slip velocity coefficient and pressure drop coefficient decreases; att intrance region the Raynolds of flow has effect on Nusselt and pressure drop coefficient,too.Likewise observed nano particle adding to water has low effect to increases Nusselt number and pressure drop coefficientt.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528805_2395e6ed9938578ae36fc731417b48d4.pdf
2016-07-22
269
280
Water-Cu nanofluid
Microtube
Slip Flow
Temperature jump
Laminar flow
saeed
javid
saeedjavid18@yahoo.com
1
Graduate student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran
AUTHOR
Arash
Karimipour
arashkarimipour@gmail.com
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Sundar L.S, Singh M.K, Convective heat transfer and friction factor correlations of nanofluid in a tube and with inserts: A review. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2013; 20: 23-35.
1
[2] Ahuja AS. Augmentation of heat transport in laminar flow of polystyrene suspension: experiments and results. Journal of Applied Physics 1975; 46: 3408–16.
2
[3] Choi SUS Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. In: Proceedings of the 1995 ASME international mechanical engineering congress and exposition, San Francisco, CA, USA, 1995.
3
[4] Raisi A, Ghasemi B and Aminossadati S.M, A Numerical Study on the Forced Convection of Laminar Nanofluid in a Microchannel with Both Slip and No-Slip Conditions. Numerical Heat Transfer, 2011 Part A, 59, pp. 114-129.
4
[5] Safaei M.R, Togun H, Vafai K, Kazi S.N, and Badarudin, A, Investigation of Heat Transfer Enchantment ina Forward-Facing contracting Channel using FMWCNT Nanofluids. Numerical Heat Transfer, 2014Part A, 66, pp. 1321-1340.
5
[6] Karimipour A, Esfe M.H, Safaei, M.R, Semiromi D.T, and Kazi S.N, Mixed convection of Copper-Water nanofluid in a shallow inclined lid driven cavity using lattice Boltzmann method. Physica 2014 A, 402, pp. 150-168.
6
[7] Jung J.-Y, Oh H.-S, Kwak H.-Y, Forced convective heat transfer of nanoﬂuids in microchannels, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 2009, 466-472.
7
[8] Heris S.Z, Etemad S.Gh, Esfahany M.N, Experimental investigation of oxide nanofluids laminar flow convective heat transfer, Internationa Communication in Heat and Mass Transfer. 33 2006, 529-535. [9] Gad-el Hak M, Flow physics in MEMS, Rev. Mec. Ind., 2001, 2, 313-341.
8
[10] Adams T.M, Abdel-Khalik S.I, Jeter S.I, Qureshi Z.H, An experimental investigation of single-phase forced convection in microchannel, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 1998, 41, pp. 851-857.
9
[11] Xuan Y, Li Q, and Ye M, Investigation of convection heat transfer in ferrofluid microflows using lattice-Boltzmann approach, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Thermal Sciences, 2007, 46, pp. 105-111.
10
[12] Ho C, Tia Y, Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) and fluid flows, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 1998, 30, pp. 579-612.
11
[13] Choi Z, Zhang Y, Numerical simulation of laminar forced convection heat transfer Al2O3–water nanofluid in a pipe with return bend, 2012, 55, pp. 90-102.
12
[14] Tahir S, Mital M, Numerical investigation of laminar nanofluid developing flow and heat transfer in a circular channel, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2012, 39, pp. 8-14.
13
[15] Akbarinia A, Laur R, Investigating the diameter of solid particles effects on a laminar nanofluid flow in a curved tube using a two phase approach, International Journal of Heat and Fluid flow, 2009, 30, pp. 706-718.
14
[16] Kumar P, Ganesan R, A CFD Study of Turbulent Convection Heat Transfer Enhancement in Circular Pipeflow, Internatinal Journal of Civil and Envirronmental Engineering, 2012, 7, pp. 385-392.
15
[17] Duan Z, Muzychka Y.S,”Slip ﬂow in non-circular microchannels”, Microﬂuid Nanoﬂuid 3(2007)473-484.
16
[18] Brinkman H.C, The Viscosity of Concentrated Suspensions and Solution, J. Chem. Phys.,1952, vol. 20, pp. 571–581.
17
[19] Patel H.E, Sundararajan T, Pradeep T, Dasgupta A, Dasgupta N, and Das S.K, A Micro-Convection Model for Thermal Conductivity of Nanoﬂuids, Pramana — J. Phys.,2005, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 863–869.
18
[20] Sun W, Kakac S, Yazicioglu A.G, A numerical study of Single-phase convection heat transfer in microtubes for slip flow, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2007, 46, pp. 1084-1094.
19
[21] Bahrami H, Bergman T.L, Faghri A, Forced convection heat transfer in a microtubes including rarefaction, viscous dissipation and axial conduction effects, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2012, 55, pp. 6665-6675.
20
[22] Zhang T, Jia L, Zhicheng W, Validation of Navier-Stokes equations for slip flow analysis within transition region, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2008, 51, pp. 6323-6327.
21
[23] Bejan A, Convection Heat Transfer (4th Edition): John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,. p 37
22
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of heat treatment on microstructural properties of three-layer sheet aluminum magnesium - aluminum - stainless steel
Metal coating, metal materials are of two or more layers. The coating metals are widely used in industry. These sheets or saving performance and cost effective solution or both the user. Performance coating metals according to usage in structural applications, settings thermal expansion of the thermo-mechanical control (thermostat), electrical, magnetic, corrosion resistant, flowering and decorative connection is divided. In each action, you may have attended several coating metal system.In this study, using the process connectors, three-layer aluminum sheet net aluminum, stainless steel was producedd Magnesium-. Examples of cross-links in different situations rolled and annealed photos were taken. In order to determine the best conditions for the production of multi-layer sheet, the effect of process parameters were evaluated connectors. Changes in different mechanical properties by tensile test was performed according to ASTM E8M allowed. The survey showed that the samples annealed at temperatures above 375 ° C for aluminum, a substantial increase bond strength of the samples has been rolled.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528806_4e199b9ef8b074e1fa523711878da246.pdf
2016-07-22
281
290
Connect cold rolling
bond strength
three-layer sheet Aaluminum Magnesium / Aluminum / Stainless Steel
Davood
Mirahmadi
davood.mecanic87@yahoo.com
1
آزاد اسلامی
LEAD_AUTHOR
Aboulfazl
Gholamzadeh
a.golamzade@gmail.com
2
عضو هیئت علمی
AUTHOR
[1] L.Chen، Z.Yang، B.Jha، G.Xia، J.W.Stevenson، “Clad metals، roll bonding and their applications for SOFC interconnects”، J. of Power Sources.152(2005) 40-45.
1
[2] L. Y. Sheng, F. Yang, T. F. Xi, C. Lai and H. Q. Ye, "Influence of heat treatment on interface of Cu/Al bimetal composite fabricated by cold rolling," Composites, p. 1468–1473, 2011.
2
[3] H. OLIA, M. ABBASI and S. H. RAZAVI, "Evaluation of diffusion and phase transformation at Ag/Al bimetal produced by cold roll welding," Trans Nonferrous Met, vol. Soc China 22, p. 312_317, 2012.
3
[4] R. Jamaati and M. Toroghinejad, "Effect of friction, annealing conditions and hardness on the bond strength of Al/Al strips produced by cold roll bonding process," Materials and Design, vol. 31, p. 4508–4513, 2010.
4
[5] محسنی م، "پیش بینی نسبت ضخامتی بهینه به منظور ایجاد جوش سرد در ورق های دولایه غیر متقارن کنفرانس شکل دهی فلزات," کنفرانس شکل دهی و مواد ایران، دانشگاه تهران،.1390
5
[6] M. Abbasi, A. Karimi Taheri and M. T. Salehi, "Growth rate ofintermetallic compounds in Al/Cu bimetal produced by cold roll welding process," Alloys and Compounds, p. 233_241, 2001.
6
[7] D. Charles and P. Tuffile, "Copper-Clad Stainless Steel Architectural Material," 2007.
7
[8] M. Abbasi and M. R. Toroghinejad, "Effects of processing parameters on the bond strength of Cu/Cu roll-bonded strips," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 210, pp. 560-563, 2010.
8
[9] J. Washburn and H. A. Mohamed, "mechanism of solid state pressure welding," welding research supplemenet, pp. 302-310, 1975.
9
[10] M. R. Toroghinejad and R. Jamaati, "Cold roll bonding bond strengths," Materials Science and Technology, vol. 0, pp. 1-7, 2010.
10
[11] R. Jamaati and M. R. Toroghinejad, "Investigation of the parameters of the cold roll bonding (CRB) process," Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 527, p. 2320–2326, 2010.
11
[12] N. F. Karakazov, Diffusion Bonding Of Metals, Pergamon Press, ١٩٨٥.
12
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental measurement of dynamic viscosity of CeO2-EG at different concentrations and temperatures and proposing a new correlation
Nanofluid is prepared through the nanoscale particles suspended in a fluid base and Nanotechnology is a new attempt to investigate the thermal sciences. As a result of huge investment in developed countries on nanotechnology, research on thermal properties of nano-fluids is of particular interest.Due to the usage of nanotechnology to reduce energy waste, in this project CeO2 with EG is used to prepare the nanofluid. For stabilization of nanofluid ultrasonic wave is used and viscosity is measured by digital viscometer. In this paper, the effects of temperature and volume fraction on viscosity of nanofluids are considered. This study indicated that the viscosity decrease in all concentrations when temperature is increasing and it increases with additioning volume fraction of nanoparticles. Also, the results show that viscosity changes related to temperature at higher concentrations. After deliberation of rheological properties and laboratory characteristics the exact formula for nanofluids viscosity obtained according to temperature and volume fraction to high accuracy.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528807_99a9bbd24b56b8fa1bb699ff449c95f5.pdf
2016-07-22
291
298
Nanofluid"
dynamic viscosity"
CeO2"
EG
Mohammad
Akbari
m.akbari.g80@gmail.com
1
دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی واحد نجف آباد
LEAD_AUTHOR
Amir Hossein
Saeidi
amirhosein.saeedi@yahoo.com
2
کارشناس ارشد دانشگاه آزاد خمینی شهر
AUTHOR
[1] Choi S. U. S., Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, Developments Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows, 66, 1995, pp. 99-105.
1
[2] Masuda A. E, Teramae H, Hishinuma K. N., Alteration of thermal conductivity and viscosity of liquid by dispersing ultra-fine particles (dispersion of c-Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 ultra fine particles), Netsu Bussei (japan), 4, 1993, pp. 227-233.
2
[3] Wang X, Choi, S. U. S., Thermal conductivity of nanoparticlefluid mixture, Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 13, 1999, pp. 474-480.
3
[4] Praveen D. P. K, Namburu K, Debasmita M. D. K, Das S. K, Choi S. U.S, Pradeep W., Viscosity of copper oxide nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol and water mixture, Therm. Fluid Sci, 32, 2007, pp. 397-402.
4
[5] Yiamsawas O. M. T, Selim Dalkilic A, Kaewnai S, Wongwises S., Experimental studies on the viscosity of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a mixture of ethylene glycol and water for high temperature applications, Appl. Energy, 111, 2013, pp. 40-45.
5
[6] Saedodin S, Hemmat Esfe M., An experimental investigation and new correlation of viscositybof ZnO–EG nanofluid at various temperatures and different solid volume fractions, Thermal and Fluid science, 55, 2014, pp. 82-98.
6
[7] Hemmat Esfe M, Saedodin S, Mahian O, Wongwises S., Heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of COOH-functionalized DWCNTs/water nanofluid in turbulent flow at low concentrations, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 73, 2014, pp. 186-194.
7
[8] S. S. M. Chandrasekar, A. Chandra Bose, "Experimental investigations and theoretical determination of thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3/water nanofluid," Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. , vol. 34 (2), pp. 210-216, 2010.
8
[9] A H, T Y, Y S, T A, Magnetic properties of ferromagnetic ultrafine particles prepared by a vacuum evaporation on running oil substrate, Journal of Crystal Growth, 45, 1978, pp. 495–500.
9
[10] Syam Sundar L, Hashim Farooky M, Naga Sarada S, Singh M.K., Experimental thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol and water mixture based low volume concentration of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 41, 2013, pp. 41–46.
10
[11] Long G.J, Hautot D, Pankhurst Q.A, Vandormael D, Grandjean F., Mössbauer-effect and X-Ray Absorption Spectral Study of Sonochemically Prepared Amorphous Iron, Physics Review, 57, 1998, pp. 10716-22.
11
[12] HC B, The viscosity of concentrated suspensions and solution, Journal of Chemical Physics, 20, 1952, pp. 571-81.
12
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Flow simulation of gallium in a cylindrical annulus in the presence of a magnetic field for improving the casting process
Free convection flow in an enclosure filled with a congealing melt leads to the product with a nonuniform structure involving large grains. The convective flows are decreased by applying an appropriate magnetic field, obtaining uniform and small grain structures. In this work, using the finite volume method, we investigated the application of a magnetic field to the convective heat transfer and temperature fields in steady and laminar flows of melted gallium in an annulus between two horizontal cylinders. The inner and outer walls of the annulus are hot and cold, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the magnetic field on the flow and temperature distribution has been investigated. The influence of the variation of other parameters including the Rayleigh number and the angle of the magnetic field on the flow and temperature field also have been studied. It has been revealed that on changing the field angle to the horizon, the Nusselt number (Nu) is increased, which is of importance in a specific range of Hartmann numbers. Also with increasing the Rayleigh number, the change in Nu with the magnetic field intensity does not occur.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528808_f3fc4e7478d06ea83ff76b181e29d9ad.pdf
2016-07-22
299
308
Numerical simulation
Molten gallium
magnetic field
Casting process
Masoud
Afrand
masoud_afrand@yahoo.com
1
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najaf Abad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najaf Abad, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
Masoud
Kasiri
m.kasiri.a@gmail.com
2
Assistant Professor, School of Materials Engineering, Najaf Abad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najaf Abad, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] Sheikhzadeh G. A., Sarhaddi F., Wongwises S., Multi-objective optimization of natural convection in a cylindrical annulus mold under magnetic field using particle swarm algorithm, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 60, 2015, pp. 13-20.
1
[2] Afrand M., Sina N., Teimouri H., Mazaheri A., Safaei M.R., Hemmat Esfe M., Kamali J., Toghraie D., Effect of magnetic field on free convection in inclined cylindrical annulus containing molten potassium, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 7, 2015, p. 1550052 (16 pages).
2
[3] Afrand M., Rostami S., Akbari M., Wongwises S., Hemmat Esfe M., Karimipour A., Effect of induced electric field on magneto-natural convection in a vertical cylindrical annulus filled with liquid potassium, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 90, 2015, pp. 418–426.
3
[4] Sankar M., Venkatachalappa M., Shivakumara, I.S., Effect of magnetic field on natural convection in a vertical cylindrical annulus, International Journal of Engineering Science, 44, 2006, pp. 1556–1570.
4
[5] Sekhar, T.V.S., Sivakumar, R., Kumar, H. and Ravi kumar, T.V.R. “Effect of aligned magnetic field on the steady viscous flow past a circular cylinder”, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 31, pp. 130–139, 2007.
5
[6] Kabeir S.M.M., Hakiem M.A., Rashad A.M., Group method analysis of combined heat and mass transfer by MHD non-Darcy non-Newtonian natural convection adjacent to horizontal cylinder in a saturated porous medium, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 32, 2008, pp. 2378–2395.
6
[7] Barletta A., Lazzari S., Magyari E., Pop, I., Mixed convection with heating effects in a vertical porous annulus with a radially varying magnetic field, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51, 2008, pp. 5777–5784.
7
[8] Ishak A., Nazar R., Pop L., Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer due to a stretching cylinder, Energy Conversion and Management, 49, 2008, 3265–3269.
8
[9] Kakarantzas S.C., Sarris I.E., Grecos A.P., Vlachos N.S., Magnetohydrodynamic natural convection in a vertical cylindrical cavity with sinusoidal upper wall temperature, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52, 2009, pp. 250–259.
9
[10] Ellahi R., Hayat T., Mahomed F.M., Zeeshan A., Analytic solutions for MHD flow in an annulus, Communications Nonlinear Sciences Numerical Simulation, 15, 2010, pp. 1224–1227.
10
[11] Venkatachalappa M., Do Y., Sankar M., Effect of magnetic field on the heat and mass transfer in a vertical annulus, International Journal of Engineering Science, 49, 2011, pp. 262-278.
11
[12] Kuehn T.H., Goldstein R.J., An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Natural Convection in the Annulus Between Horizontal Concentric Cylinders, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 4, 1976, pp. 695-719.
12
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
A model for enhanced heat transfer in an enclosure using Nano-aerosols
In this study, the behavior of nanoparticles using a numerical model is discussed. For this study a model for the expansion in free convection heat transfer and mix in a rectangular container with dimensions of 1 × 4 cm using Nano-aerosols in the air is going when copper nanoparticles, use and by changing the temperature difference between hot and cold wall, we will examine its impact on the rate of heat transfer. The simulation involves two-dimensional flow simulation and relaxed state of constant flux in free convection on the two lateral sides and on the top face of constant temperature (cold plate) at 300 K was considered And at low temperature (heat plate) in three modes 350, 400 and 450 K were compared. Temperature distribution, velocity, surface heat flux and Nusselt number during the course of our review.Finally, enhanced heat transfer in the presence of copper nanoparticles and changes in the temperature difference between warm and cold wall was observed
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528809_e99c227421ff90a6ba307a83a9b2d55f.pdf
2016-07-22
309
326
Nano-Particle
Aerosol
Convective heat transfer
Nano-fluid
Navid
Ghajari
navid.ghajari@gmail.com
1
Graduate, School of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Khomeini Shahr, Esfahan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
davood
toghraie
davoodtoghraie@gmail.com
2
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Khomeini Shahr, Esfahan, Iran.
AUTHOR
ahmad reza
azimian
azimian@iaukhsh.ac.ir
3
Professor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Khomeini Shahr, Esfahan, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Murshed S.M.S., Leong K.C., and Yang C., Thermophysical and electrokinetic properties of Nanofluids – A critical review, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 28, 2008, pp. 2109-2125.
1
[2] Kreidenweis S.M, Asa Awuku A, Aerosol Hygroscopicity: Particle Water Content and Its Role in Atmospheric Processes,Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental SciencesTreatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), Vol. 5, 2014, pp. 331-361.
2
[3] Masuda H., Ebata A., Teramae K., Hishinuma N., Alternation of thermal conductivity and viscosity of liquid by dispersing ultra-fine particles (Dispersion of g-Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 ultra-fine particles(, Netsu Bussei, 7, 1993, pp. 227.233.
3
[4] Schild A, Gutsch A, M¨uhlenweg H, Pratsinis, S.E, Simulation of nanoparticle production in premixed aerosol flow reactors byinterfacing fluid mechanics and particle dynamics, Journal of Nanoparticle Research,Vol. 10, 1991, pp. 305-315.
4
[5] Akbar M.K, Rahman M, Ghiaasiaan S.M, Particle transport in a small square enclosure in laminar natural convection, Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol. 40, 2009, pp.747-761.
5
[6] Pommerenck J, Alanazi Y, Gzik T, Vachkov R, Hackleman D.E, Recovery of a multicomponent, single phase aerosol with a difference in vapor pressures entrained in a large air flow, Journal. Chem. Thermodynamics, Vol. 46, 2012, pp. 109-115.
6
[7] Lee S., Choi S.U.S., Li S., Eastman J.A., Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxid nanoparticles, Journal of heat transfer, Vol. 121, 1999, pp. 280.289.
7
[8] Zeinali Heris S., Kazemi-Beydokhti A., Noie S.H., Rezvan S., Numerical study on convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water, CuO/water, Cu/water nanofluids through square crass-section duct in laminar flow, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 6, 2012, pp. 1-14.
8
[9] Santra A.K, Sen S. and Chakraborty N, Study of heat transfer due to laminar flow of copper–water nanofluid through two isothermally heated parallel plates, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 48, 2009, pp. 391-400.
9
[10] Shukla K.N., Solomon A.B., Pillai B.C., Ruba Singh B.J., Kumar S.S., Thermal performance of heat pipe with suspended nano-particles, Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 46, 2012, pp. 1913-1920.
10
[11] Buongiorno J., Convective transport in nano fluids, Journal of Heat Transfer-Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 128, 2006, pp. 240-250.
11
[12] Hakan F.O., Abu-Nada E., Numerical study of natural convection in partially heated rectangular enclosures filled with nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. Vol. 29, 2008, pp. 1326.1336.
12
[13] Pallares J.N., Grau F.X., Particle dispersion in a turbulent natural convection channel flow, Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol. 43, 2012, pp. 45-56.
13
[14] Hudson A., Computational Analysis to Enhance Laminar Flow Convective Heat Transfer Rate in an Enclosure Using Aerosol Nanofluids, Electronic Theses & Dissertations, Vol. 12, 2013,pp. 10-48.
14
[15] Ounis H., Ahmadi G., Mclaughlin J.B., Dispersion and Deposition of Brownian Particles from Point Sources in a Simulated Turbulent Channel Flow, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 147, 1991, pp. 233-250.
15
[16] Talbot L., Cheng R.K., Schefer R.W., Willis D.R., Thermophoresis of Particles in a Heated Boundary Layer, Journal of. Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 101, 1980, pp. 737-758.
16
[17] Cheng P, Two-Dimensional Radiating Gas Flow by a Moment Method, AIAA Journal, Vol. 2, 1964, pp. 1662-1664.
17
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Asymmetric buckling analysis of the circular FGM plates with temperature-dependent properties under elastic medium
In this paper, Asymmetric buckling analysis of functionally graded (FG) Circular plates with temperature dependent property that subjected to the uniform radial compression and thermal loading is investigated. This plate is on an elastic medium that simulated by Winkler and Pasternak foundation. Mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to vary nonlinearly by temperature change. The equilibrium equations are obtained using the classical plate theory (CPT), Von Karman geometric nonlinearity and virtual displacement method. Existence of bifurcation buckling is examined and stability equations are obtained by means of the adjacent equilibrium criterion. The effects of elastic foundation coefficient, thickness to radius, power law index, and temperature-dependency of the material properties on critical buckling load of FG plates are presented. The results of the present work have been compared with the results of other investigator and the results of the comparison are very good. It is found that by increasing temperature, critical buckling load decreases. It is also concluded that the critical buckling load of (FG) Circular plates increases with an increase in the Winkler and Pasternak constants of elastic foundation.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528811_c76d11195208c149bc794b9e0338fd93.pdf
2016-07-22
327
340
Circular plates
Asymmetric buckling
Functionally Graded Materials
Temperature-dependency
Elastic foundation
Alireza
Naddaf Oskouee
anadaf@ihu.ac.ir
1
Associate Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Imam Hussein (AS), Tehran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hadi
Mohammadi Hoveyeh
hmohammadihooyeh@ihu.ac.ir
2
Lecturer, Department of Mechanics, University Eyvanakey, Semnan
AUTHOR
Vahid
Alaee
alaei.vahid21@yahoo.com
3
MA, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Imam Hussein (AS), Tehran
AUTHOR
k.
Vahedi
vahedi1710@yahoo.com
4
Associate Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Imam Hussein (AS), Tehran
AUTHOR
[1] Fukui Y., "Fundamental investigation of functionally gradient material manufacturing system using centrifugal force" JSME International Journal, Ser, 3, Vibration, Control Engineering, engineering for industry, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1991, pp. 144-148.
1
[2] Bryan G. H., "On the stability of a plane plate under thrusts in its own plane, with applications to the “buckling” of the sides of a ship" Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1890,pp. 54-67.
2
[3] Timoshenko, Stephen P., and James M., "Theory of elastic stability " McGrawHill-Kogakusha Ltd, Tokyo, 1961.
3
[4] Almroth B. O., and Brush D. O., "Buckling of bars, plates and shells" Mc Graw-Hill, New York 48, 1975.
4
[5] Yamaki N., "Buckling of a thin annular plate under uniform compression" Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1958, pp. 267-273.
5
[6] Reddy J. N., and Khdeir A., "Buckling and vibration of laminated composite plates using various plate theories" American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Vol. 27, No. 12, 1989, pp. 1808-1817.
6
[7] Najafizadeh M. M., and Heydari H. R., "An exact solution for buckling of functionally graded circular plates based on higher order shear deformation plate theory under uniform radial compression" International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2008, pp. 603-612.
7
[8] Najafizadeh M. M., and Heydari H. R., "Thermal buckling of functionally graded circular plates based on higher order shear deformation plate theory" European Journal of Mechanics-A/Solids, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2004, pp. 1085-1100.
8
[9] Wang C. Y., "On the buckling of a circular plate on an elastic foundation" Journal of applied mechanics, Vol. 72, No. 5, 2005, pp. 795-796.
9
[10] Shariat B. S., and Eslami M. R., "Buckling of thick functionally graded plates under mechanical and thermal loads" Composite Structures, Vol. 78, No. 3, 2007, pp. 433-439.
10
[11] Najafizadeh M. M., and Eslami M. R., "Buckling analysis of circular plates of functionally graded materials under uniform radial compression" International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 12, 2002, pp. 2479-2493.
11
[12] Najafizadeh M. M., and Eslami M. R., "First-order-theory-based thermoelastic stability of functionally graded material circular plates" American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Vol. 40, No. 7, 2002, pp. 1444-1450.
12
[13] Shariat B. S., Javaheri R., and Eslami M. R., "Buckling of imperfect functionally graded plates under in-plane compressive loading." Thin-walled structures, Vol. 43, no. 7, 2005, pp. 1020-1036.
13
[14] Matsunaga, Hiroyuki. "Thermal buckling of functionally graded plates according to a 2D higher-order deformation theory." Composite Structures, Vol. 90, no. 1, 2009, pp. 76-86.
14
[15] Klosner J. M., ”Buckling of simply supported plates under arbitrary symmetrical temperature distributions”. Journal of the Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 25, 1958, pp. 181–184.
15
[16] Ghiasian S. E., et al, "Thermal buckling of shear deformable temperature dependent circular/annular FGM plates" International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 81, 2014, pp. 137-148.
16
[17] Javaheri R., and Eslami M. R., "Thermal buckling of functionally graded plates" American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2002, pp. 162-169.
17
[18] Reddy J. N., and Chin C. D., "Thermomechanical analysis of functionally graded cylinders and plates" Journal of Thermal Stresses, Vol. 21, No. 6, 1998, pp. 593-626.
18
[19] Saidi A. R., and Hasani Baferani A., "Thermal buckling analysis of moderately thick functionally graded annular sector plates" Composite Structures, Vol. 92, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1744-1752.
19
[20] Yu L. H., and Wang C. Y., "Buckling mosaic of a circular plate on a partial elastic foundation" Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2010, pp. 135-138.
20
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analysis of Stresses in Helicopter Composite blade in Hovering Maneuver
The main purpose of this article is the structural analysis of a composite blade of a selected helicopter. In this study, the stresses on rotors' blades caused by centrifugal forces, lift, drag and torque are analyzed. The governing equations of the structure behavior and solving processes were carried out by MATLAB software, and simulation is carried out by ABAQUS software, and they are compared with each other. The program written for MATLAB is based on beam element theory and the computation of stress and displacement of considered elements of a blade, is one of the properties of the written code. In ABAQUS, the helicopter blade is simulated in various states such as composite and aluminum blade with/without web and composite blade with laminations in different angles. The results of the mentioned states are compared with each other and with the code and finally, the results are compared with reference article. Comparison between beam element results and ABAQUS simulation shows proper match. In order to optimize a composite blade, attention must be paid to factors such as, displacement and stress reduction and prevention of excess in weight, as by an increase in thickness of 45 and 90 degree laminates to 6.5 mm, maximum displacement would be 12.9 cm, and total weight of the structure would be 8 Kg.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528813_5f5239f8878e2929c3378c5546fa4656.pdf
2016-07-22
341
356
Blade
Composite
ABAQUS
Beam Element
Ali Asgar
Naderi
aa.naderi@modares.ac.ir
1
Assistant Professor-University of Imam Ali (a.s)-Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Mohssen
Nazari
atm.1991@yahoo.com
2
A graduate of the master of mechanical engineering, Faculty of engineering, Shahid beheshti University
AUTHOR
D. Brian, Larder helicopter HUM/FDR, benefits and developments, 55th Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, 1839, Montreal, Canada.
1
P. W. Stevens, D. L. Hall, E. G. Smith, A multidisciplinary research approach to rotorcraft health and usage monitoring, 52nd Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, 1732, Washington, DC, USA.
2
D. Barwey, D. A. Peters, Optimization of composite rotor blades with advanced structural and aerodynamic modeling, center for computational mechanics Department of mechanical engineeing, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1994, pp. 193-219.
3
G. Ranjan, I. Chopra, Aeroelastic optimization of a helicopter rotor with two-cell composite blades, AIAA journal, Vol. 34, No. 4, 1996, pp. 566-573.
4
J. E. Kim, S. Klijn, Structural Optimization for Light-weight Articulated rotor Blade,41sth AIAA/ ASME/ ASCE/ AHS/ASC Structures, tructural Dynamics, and aterialsConference, 3-6 April 2000, California, USA.
5
J. E. Kim, S. Klijn, Elastic-dynamic Rotor Blade Design with Multiobjective Optimization, AIAA Journal, Vol. 39, No. 9, 2001, pp. 1652–1661.
6
Guo, Jun-Xian, and Jin-Wu Xiang, Composite Rotor Blade Design Optimization for Vibration Reduction with Aeroelastic Constraints. Chinese journal of aeronautics, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2004, pp. 152-158.
7
V. V. Volovoi, L. Li, J. Ku, D. H. Hodges, Multi-level Structural Optimization of Composite Rotor Blades, 46th AIAA/ ASME/ ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Mate-rials Conference, 2005, Austin, Texas.
8
L. Li, J. Ku, V. V. Volovoi, D. H. Hodges, Cross -Sectional Design of omposite Rotor Blades,63rd Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 2-5 September 2008, Virginia, USA.
9
Li. Leihong, Structural design of composite rotor blades with consideration of manufacturability, durability, and manufacturing uncertainties, Engineering Mechanics, University of Georgia, 2008.
10
K. K. Saijal, Optimization of helicopter rotor using polynomial and neural network metamodels. Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2011, pp. 553-566.
11
H. Debski, Numerical Fem Analysis For the part of Composite Helicopter Rotor Blade,Journal of Kones powertrain and transport, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2012.
12
A. NOUR, M. T. GHERBI, Modes shape and harmonic analysis of different structures for helicopter blade, 30th european conference on acoustic emission testing and 7th international conference on acoustic emission university of Granada, 12-15 September 2012, Granada, Spain.
13
S. Sastry, I. Bhargavi Rachana, K. Durga Rao, Stress Analysis of Helicopter Composite Blade Using Finite Element Analysis, International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 12, 2013, pp. 1291-1299.
14
D. Kumar, Design and Analysis of Composite Rotor Blades for Active/Passive Vibration Reduction,Engineering Mechanics, University of Michigan, 2013.
15
D. Kumar, New strategy for designing composite rotor blades with active flaps, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 21-24 October 2015, Michigan, USA.
16
R. Koohi, H. Shahverdi, H. Haddadpour, Modal and Aeroelastic Analysis of a High-Aspect-Ratio Wing with Large Deflection Capability, International journal advanced design and manufacturing technology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2015, pp. 45-59.
17
D. Taherifar, M. Mohseni shakib, M. Shahabi, The composite rotor blade optimization by using a combination finite element method and genetic algoritm, majlesi Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2011, pp. 13-23.
18
I. J. Park, S. N. Jung, General purpose cross-section Analysis program for composite rotor blades, Internatuonal journal of aeronautical and space sciences, Vol. 10, No. 2, November 2009, pp. 77-85.
19
M. Todorov, I. Dobrev, F. Massouh C. Velkova, Aeroelastic Investigation of Hingeless Helicopter Rotor in Hover, International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 8-12 June 2012, Paris, France.
20
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Energy Harvesting Electrical from Nano Beam with Layer Piezoelectric under Random Vibration
In the present paper, electrical energy harvesting from random vibrations of an Euler-Bernoulli nano-beam with two piezoelectric layers is investigated. The beam is composed of an aluminum layer together with two piezoelectric ceramic layers (PZT 5A) serving as energy harvesting sensors. In the proposed method, the equations governing the bimorph nano-beam will be analytically derived using classical beam theory with corresponding modification coefficients to the nano-structure applied. Then, the derived system of equations will be solved following Kantorovich method. Assumed boundary conditions for the nano-beam are as follows: a clamped end with the mass concentrated at the free end of the beam. Further, the input activation function of the system for energy harvesting was taken as being random. Since the objective of this research is to investigate the amount of harvested energy, the section on the results provides associated voltage and maximum output power curves with the bimorph nano-beam under random activation and input white noise, while also presenting the effects of characteristics and scale factor of the nano-particles on the amount of harvested energy.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528814_b37eb4217a9084a9fc4ac0c10176449a.pdf
2016-07-22
357
370
Nano beam
Piezoelectric
Electromechanical-coupling
Radom vibrations
Hossein
vahdani far
vahdanifar71@gmail.com
1
MSc Student, Department of Engineering Shahid Chamran University
AUTHOR
Reza
Shirani
r.shirani90@gmail.com
2
MSc student, Department of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University
AUTHOR
Mohammad
Dehghani
mohammad.dehghani.20@gmail.com
3
Phd student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yazd University
AUTHOR
younes
yousefi
y.yousefi@iauo.ac.ir
4
Director of the Department of Mechanical Islamic Azad University Omidiyeh
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Kim H. Kim J.H. Kim J. A review of piezoelectric energy harvesting based on vibration, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol.12, 2011, pp.1129-1141.
1
[2] Zamanian M. Rezaei H. Hadilu M, A comprehensive analysis on the discretization method of the equation of motion in piezoelectrically actuated micro beams, Smart Structures and Systems, Vol. 16, 2015, pp.891- 918,
2
[3] Ke L.L, Wang Y.S, Thermoelectric-mechanical vibration of piezoelectric Nano beams based on the nonlocal theory, Smart Materials and Structures,Vol. 21, 2012,
3
[4] Zhang Y. Cai S.CS. Deng L. Piezoelectric-based energy harvesting in bridge systems, Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 25, 2014, pp.1414-1428.
4
[5] Dai X.Z. Wen Y.M, Li P, Yang J, Gao G.Y, Modeling, characterization and fabrication of vibration energy harvester using Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D composite transducer, Sensors and Actuators, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical volume 156, 2009, pp.350-358
5
[6] Eggborn T. Analytical models to predict power harvesting with piezoelectric materials, Dissertação de Mestrado - Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2003
6
[7] Erturk A. and Inman D.J. A distributed parameter electromechanical model for cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, volume130 2008, page 041002.
7
[8] Fakhzan M.N, Muthalif Asan G.A, Harvesting vibration energy using piezoelectric material: Modeling, simulation and experimental verifications, Mechatronics, volume 23, 2013, pp 61-6
8
[9] Ottman G.K, Hofmann H.F, Bhatt A.C, Lesieutre G.A, Adaptive piezoelectric energy harvesting circuit for wireless remote power supply, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics volume 17,2002, pages 669 to 676.
9
[10] Azizi S, Ghazavi M. R, Rezazadeh G. Ahmadian I, Cetinkaya C, Tuning the primary resonances of a micro resonator using piezoelectric actuation, Nonlinear Dynamics,Vol. 76, 2014, pp. 839-852,
10
[11]Erturk A, Inman DJ. An experimentallyvalidated bimorph cantilever model for piezoelectric energy harvesting from base excitations. Smart Mater Struct 2009;18:025009
11
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
The mixed mode fracture mechanics in a hole plate bonded with two dissimilar plane
In the present research, the mixed-mode fracture mechanics analysis in a plate with central hole under tensile loading is considered. It is assumed that a plate containing two symmetrical hole-edge cracks is bonded with two dissimilar planes. The stress intensity factors at the crack tips are calculated. The problem is modeled in Casca software and this model is analyzed with Franc software. The effects of various factors such as hole diameter, crack length, angle of crack and material properties of plates have been investigated on stress intensity factors. The stress intensity factors increases with increasing crack length. Also, the stress intensity factors increases with the increase of hole diameter. For a certain amount of for small crack lengths the effect of cracks length on variation of stress intensity factors is more than the hole diameter but for large crack lengths the effect of hole diameter on variation of stress intensity factors is more than the cracks length.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_528815_58c9c0fdc5c60c9e8c62fbe00fd05315.pdf
2016-07-22
371
380
Mixed mode fracture
Stress intensity factor
hole-edge cracks
Franc software
Casca software
Mohammad Rahim
Torshizian
torshizian@mshdiau.ac.ir
1
Assistant Professor, Mechanic Engineering Department, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hosein
Andarzjoo
andrezjoohosin@gmail.com
2
MSc, Mechanic Engineering Department, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] Yan x., A numerical analysis of cracks emanating from an elliptical hole in 2-D plate, Journal of Mechanic Research, Vol. 25, 2005, pp. 142-153.
1
[2] Cirello A., Furgiuele F., Mletta C., Pasta A., Numerical simulation and experimental measurements of the stress intensity in perforated plates, Journal of Engineering Fracture Mechanic Research, Vol. 75, 2008, pp. 4383-4393.
2
[3] Chakherlou T.N., Abazadeh B., Vogwell j., The effect of bolt clamping force on the fracture strength and the stress intensity factor of a plate containing a fastener hole with edge cracks, Journal of Engineering Failare Analysis Research, Vol. 16, 2009, pp. 242-253.
3
[4] Zhao J., Xie L., Liu j., Zhao Q., A method for stress intensity factor clacuation of infinite plate containing multiple hole-edge craks, International Journal of Fatigue Research, Vol. 35, 2012, pp. 2-9.
4
[5] Torshizian M.R., Kargarnovin M.H., Anti plane shear of an arbitrary oriented crack in a functionally graded strip bonded with two dissimilar half planes. Theoretical Applied Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 54, 2010, pp. 180-188.
5
[6] Torshizian M.R., Kargarnovin M.H., The mixed mode fracture mechanics analysis of an embedded arbitrary oriented crack in two dimensional functionally graded material plate, Archive Applied Mechanics, Vol. 84, 2014, pp. 625-637.
6
[7] Evans R., Clarke A., Gravina R., Heller M., Stewart R., Improved stress intensity factor for selected configurations in cracked plates. Journal of Engineering fracture Mechanic Research, Vol. 127, 2014, pp. 296-312.
7
[8] Torshizian M.R., Mode III stress intensity factor in two dimensional functionally graded material with lengthwise linearly varying properties. Archive Applied Mechanics, Vol. 85, 2015, pp. 2009-2021.
8
[9] Long X., Delale F., The mixed mode crack problem in an FGM layer bonded to a homogeneous half-plan. International Journal of Solids Structures, Vol. 42, 2005, pp. 3897-3917.
9
[10] Sladek J., Sladek V., Zhang C., An advanced numerical method for computing elastodynamic fracture parameters in functionally graded materials. Computational Materials Science, Vol. 32, 2005, pp. 532-543.
10
[11] Hsu W.H., Chue C.H., Mode III fracture problem of an arbitrarily oriented crack in an FGPM strip bonded to a homogeneous piezoelectric half-plane. Meccanica, Vol. 44, 2009, pp. 519-534.
11
[12] Dowling N.E., Mechanical Behavior of Materials engineering methods for deformation fracture and fatigue, 2014, Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs.
12
[13] Gdoutos E.E., Fracture Mechanics an Introduction, 1993, Kluwer Academic publisher.
13
[14] Anderson T.L., Fracture mechanics fundamentals and applications, 1994, CRC Press LLC. Boca Raton
14
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental Study of the Voltage and Number of the Coil Rounds in Electromagnetic Forming Process of the V shape Aluminum sheets
Electromagnetic power, which is one of the fast ways for forming, is used for forming workpieces without having any effect on them. Using it causes the workpieces to reach the minimum back spring and tear; consequently building the equipment like pistons will cost less than before. Electromagnetic power is used for forming Aluminium sheets into V shapes in this study. As the coils connect the machine and the workpieces, the number of rounds and the voltage in 10 levels will be discussed in this study. Considering the results and analysis that have been reached, the best forming occurs in the voltage of 1500 and 35 rounds. Because the machine creates a high ampere and a proper amount of rounds in this voltage in order to transfer the whole power to the workpiece. As the rounds increase to 40, the forming will decrease up to 34/3 percent
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_529112_76a8c30ee9008848746e007863d66995.pdf
2017-01-17
381
390
Electromagnetic Forming
V Shape Forming
Finite elements Simulation
Factorial Statistical method
Sajad
Nadian Bersiani
1
Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch
AUTHOR
Ahmad
Keshavarzi
keshavarzi@iaukhsh.ac.ir
2
Department of Engineering , Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Amin
Kolahdooz
aminkolahdooz@iaukhsh.ac.ir
3
Assistant Professor, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Isfahan/Khomeinishahr, Iran
AUTHOR
[1]Rees, D.W.A., Basic Engineering, Published by Elsevier Ltd., 2006, pp. 448-452.
1
[2] http://ramin-jodeyri.blogfa.com/post/69 آخرین بازدید 10 شهریور 1395 .
2
[3] Daehn G.S., High Velocity Metal Forming ASM Handbook, Volume 14B, Metalworking: Sheet Forming, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, pp. 405-418.
3
[4] Aminian Dehkordi, S., Kolahdooz, A., Loh-mousavi, M., The application of electromagnetic energy in the mechanical engineering to the required force for movement, The 2th National Congress on Energy (A new approach to the production, productivity and storage), Islamic Azad university, Khomeinishahr Branch, Winter 2017, In Persian.
4
[5] El-Azab, A., Garnich, M., Kapoor, A., Modeling of the electromagnetic forming of sheet metals: state of the art and future needs, Journal of material processing technology, Vol.142, 2003, pp. 744-754.
5
[6] Qing-Juan , Z. , Chun-ju , W. , Hai-ping , Y. , Bin , G. , De-bin , S. ,Chun-feng , L. , Micro bulging of thin T2 copper sheet by electromagnetic forming , Transaction of Nonferrous Metal Society of China, Vol. 2, 2011, pp. 461-464.
6
[7] Ahmed, M., Panthi, S.K., Ramakrishanan, N., JHA, A.k., Yegneswaran, A.H., Dasgupta, R., Ahmed, S., Alternative flat coil design for electromagnetic forming using FEM, Transaction of Nonferrous Metal Society of China, Vol. 21, 2011, pp. 618-625.
7
[8] Cui, X., Li, X., Mo, X., Fang, J., Zhu, Y., Zhong, K., Investigation of large sheet deformation process in electromagnetic incremental forming, Material and Design, Vol. 76. 2015, pp. 86-96.
8
[9] Xiong, W., Wang, W., Wan, M., Li, X., Geometric issues in V bending electromagnetic forming process of 2024–T3 aluminum alloy, journal of manufacturing process, Vol. 19, 2015, pp. 171-182.
9
[10] Aminian Dehkordi, S., Kolahdooz, A., Loh-Mousavi, M., Simulation of the electromagnetic energy on the speed of a projectile using Abaqus and J-Mag software coupled, The 2th National Congress on Energy (A new approach to the production, productivity and storage), Islamic Azad university, Khomeinishahr Branch, Winter 2017, In Persian.
10
[11] Aminian Dehkordi, S., Kolahdooz, A., Loh-Mousavi, M., Study of Effective Parameters on Velocity of Projectile Using Electromagnetic Force, Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Vibration, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2016, pp. 21-31.
11
[12] Psyka, V., Rischa, D., Kinseyb, B.L., Tekkayaa, A.E., Kleinera, M. Electromagnetic forming-A review, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 211, 2011, pp. 787-829.
12
[13] Gayakwad, D., Kumar dargar, M., kumar sharma, P., Purohit, R., Rana, R.S., A Review on Electromagnetic forming process, Procedia materials science, Vol. 6, 2014, pp. 520-527.
13