ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Dynamic Stability of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Based on Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory
This paper deals with dynamic Stability of single walled carbon nanotube. Strain gradient theory and Euler-Bernouli beam theory are implemented to investigate the dynamic stability of SWCNT embedded in an elastic medium. The equations of motion were derived by Hamilton principle and non-local elasticity approach. The nonlocal parameter accounts for the small-size effects when dealing with nano- size structures such as single-walled carbon nanotubes. Influences of nonlocal effects, modulus parameter of elastic medium and aspect ratio of the SWCNT on the critical buckling loads and instability regions are analyzed. It is found that the difference between instability regions predicted by local and nonlocal beam theories is significant for nanotubes.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_517900_1ce2b6f80a8164ea8f2c2038202a7906.pdf
2015-05-22
1
11
Dynamic stability
Carbon Nanotube
Strain gradient
Euler-Bernouli beam
Non-local alasticity
F.
Agha-Davoudi
davoodi@iaukhsh.ac.ir
1
Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Isfahan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Hashemian
mohamad.hashemian@gmail.com
2
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Isfahan, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] Asghari, M., Rahaeifard, M., Kahrobaiyan, M.H., Ahmadian, M.T., The modified couple stress functionally graded Timoshenko beam formulation. Material Des., Vol. 32, 2011, pp. 1435–1443.
1
[2] Asghari, M., Geometrically nonlinear micro-plate formulation based on the modified couple stress theory, International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 51, 2012, pp. 292–309.
2
[3] Ansari R., Free vibration analysis of size-dependentfunctionally graded microbeams based on the strain gradient Timoshenko beam theory,Composite Structures, vol. 94, 2011.
3
[4] Fu Y., Zhang J., Electromechanical dynamic buckling phenomenon in symmetric electric fields actuated microbeams considering material damping, Acta Mechanicals, vol. 212, 2010, pp. 29–42.
4
[5] Ferreira A., Batra R.C., Roque CMC, Qian LF, , Natural frequencies of functionally graded plates by a meshless method, Composite Structures, vol. 75, 2006, pp. 593–600.
5
[6] Seidel, Analytic and Computational Micromechanics of Clustering and Interphase Effects in Carbon Nanotube, 2007.
6
[7] Yang F., Chong,A.C.M., Lam D.C.C., Tong P. Couple stress based strain gradient theory for elasticity, International Journal of SolidsStructure, vol. 39, 2002, pp. 2731–2743.
7
[8] Tadi Beni Y., Karimipour I., Abadyan M., Modeling the instability of electrostatic nano-bridges and nano-cantilevers using modified strain gradient theory, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 2014, In press.
8
[9] Fakhrabadi M.M.S., Rastgoo A., Ahmadian M.T., Non-linear behaviors of carbon nanotubes under electrostatic actuation based on strain gradient theory, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, vol. 67, 2014, pp. 236-244.
9
[10] Wang L., Wave propagation of fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotubes via gradient elasticity theory, Computational Materials Science, vol. 49, No. 4, 2010, pp. 761-766.
10
[11] Miandoab E., Yousefi-Koma A., and Pishkenari H., Nonlocal and strain gradient based model for electrostatically actuated silicon nano-beams, Microsystem Technologies, vol. 21, No. 2, 2015, pp. 457-464.
11
[12] Koochi A., Sedighi H.M., Abadyan M., Modeling the size dependent pull-in instability of beam-type NEMS using strain gradient theory.
12
[13] Nami, M.R., Janghorban, M., Static analysis of rectangular nanoplates using exponential shear deformation theory based on strain gradient elasticity theory, Iranian Journal of Materials Forming, vol. 1, No. 2, 2014, pp. 1-13.
13
[14] Ru C.Q., Axially compressed buckling of a doublewalled carbon nanotube embedded in an elastic medium, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 49, 2001, pp. 1265-1279.
14
[15] Wang C.Y., Ru C.Q., Mioduchowski A., Axially compressed buckling of pressured multiwall carbon nanotubes, International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 40, 2003, pp. 3893-3911.
15
[16] Yoon J., Ru C.Q., A. Mioduchowski, Vibration and instability of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid, Composites Science and Technology, 65 (2005) 1326-1336.
16
[17] Païdoussis M.P., Fluid–Structure Interactions: Slender Structures and Axial Flow, Academic Press, 1998.
17
[18] Ghorbanpour Arani A., Rahmani R., Arefmanesh A., Golabi S., Buckling analysis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under combined loading considering the effect of small length scale, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 22, 2008, pp. 429-439.
18
[19] Sun C., Liu K., Dynamic buckling of double-walled carbon nanotubes under step axial load, Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, vol. 22, 2009, pp. 27-36.
19
[20] Ansari R., On the dynamic stability of embedded single-walled carbon nanotubes including thermal environment effects, 2012.
20
[21] Ghorbanpour Arani A., Kolahchi R., Mosayyebi M., Jamali M., Pulsating fluid induced dynamic instability of visco-double-walled carbon nano-tubes based on sinusoidal strain gradient theory using DQM and Bolotin method, International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design, 2014, pp. 1-22.
21
[22] Ghorbanpour Arani A., Yousefi M., Amir S., Dashti P., Chehreh A.B., Dynamic Response of Viscoelastic CNT Conveying Pulsating Fluid Considering Surface Stress and Magnetic Field, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 40, No. 6, 2015, pp. 1707-1726.
22
[23] Mindlin, R.D., Second gradient of strain and surface tension in linear lasticity, Int. J. Solids Struct. 1, pp. 417–438 ,1965
23
[24] Fleck N.A., Muller G.M., Ashby M.F., Hutchinson J.W., Strain gradient plasticity: theory and experiment. Acta Metallurgy and Materials, vol. 42, 1994, pp. 475–487.
24
[25] Yan, Y., X.Q. He, L.X. Zhang, C.M. Wang, Dynamic behavior of triple-walled carbon nanotubes conveying fluid, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 319 , 2009, pp. 1003-1018.
25
[26] Tadi Y., Cylindrical thin-shell model based on modified strain gradient theory, International Journal of Engineering Science, 2014.
26
[27] Herbert E., Lindberg, Little Book of Dynamic Buckling, 2003.
27
[28] Nayfeh A.H., Mook D.T., Nonlinear oscillations, Wiley classics library, 1995.
28
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Non-linear Static Modeling of Moderately Thick Functionally Graded Plate Using Dynamic Relaxation Method
In this paper, nonlinear static analysis of moderately thick plate made of functionally graded materials subjected to mechanical transverse loading is carried out using dynamic relaxation method. Mindlin first order shear deformation theory is employed to consider thick plate. Discretized equations are extracted for geometrically nonlinear behavior analysis.Loading Conditions and boundary conditions of the plate are uniformly distributed transverse load and simply supported at the four edges of the thick plate, respectively. In order to generalize the obtained results, the equations are solved by applying dynamic relaxation method based on central finite deference discretization in the non-dimensional form. The effects of problem parameters such as gradient constant of the functionally graded material and the side to thickness ratio of plate on the results are investigated. According to the obtained results, the need of including elastic large deflection and applying the theory which considers the effects of plate thickness on the plate bending response and also finally the need of employing dynamic relaxation solution method despite the non-linear terms resulted from large deflection of the functionally graded thick plate are discussed.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_517901_915a4190896d33fc49b611ef986b6468.pdf
2015-05-22
13
37
Dynamic relaxation method
Functionally graded plate
Mindlin first order shear deformation theory
Elastic large deformation
M.J.
Mahmoodi
mj_mahmoudi@sbu.ac.ir
1
Assistant Professor, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
V.
Mahlooji
2
PhD Student, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] Koizumi M., The concept of FGM, Ceramic Transactions, Functionally Gradient. Materials, vol. 34, 1993, pp. 3-10.
1
[2] Aboudi J., Pindera M.J., Arnold S.M., Thermoelastic theory for the response of materials functionally graded in Two Directions, International Journal of Solid and Structures, vol. 33, 1996, pp. 931-966.
2
[3] Aboudi J., Pindera M.J., Arnold S.M., Elastic response of metal matrix composites with tailores microstructures to thermal gradient, International Journal of Solid and Structures, vol. 31, 1994, pp. 1393-1428.
3
[4] Aboudi J., Pindera M.J., Arnold S.M., Higher order theory for functionally graded materials, Composites Part B, vol. 30, 1999, pp. 777-832.
4
[5] Reddy J.N., Praveen G.N., Nonlinear transient thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded ceramic-metal plates, , International Journal of Solid and Structures, vol. 35, 1998, pp. 4457-4476.
5
[6] Reddy J.N., Wang C.M., Kitipornchai S., Axisymmetric bending of functionally graded circular and annular plates, , European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids, vol. 18, 1999, pp. 185-199.
6
[7] Reddy J.N., Analysis of functionally graded plates, International Journal for Numerical Method in Engineering, vol. 47, 2000, pp. 663-684.
7
[8] Reddy J.N., Cheng Z.Q., Three-dimensional thermo-mechanical deformation of functionally graded rectangular plate, European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids, vol. 20, 2001, pp. 841-855.
8
[9] Cheng Z.Q., Batra R.C., Three-dimensional deformation of a functionally graded elliptic plate, Composite Part B, vol. 31, 2000, pp. 97-106.
9
[10] Cheng Z.Q., BatraR.C., Deflection relationships between the homogeneous Kirchhoff plate theory and different functionally graded plate theories, Archive of mechanics, vol. 52, 2000, pp. 143-158.
10
[11] Kashtalyan M., Three-dimensional elasticity solution for bending of functionally graded rectangular plates,European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids, vol. 23, 2004, pp. 853-864.
11
[12] Woo J., Meguid S.A., Nonlinear analysis of functionally graded platesand shallow shells,International Journal of Solid and Structures, vol. 38, 2001, pp. 9-21.
12
[13] Yang J., Shen H.S., Non-linear analysis of functionally graded plates under transverse and in-plane loads, International Journal of Non-linear Mechanics, vol. 38, 2003, pp. 467-482.
13
[14] Ghannad Pour S.A.M., Alinia M.M., Large deflection behavior of functionally graded plates under pressure loads, Composite Structures, 75, 2006, pp. 67-71.
14
[15] Alibeigloo A., Exact solution for thermo-elastic response of functionally graded rectangular plates, Composite Structures, vol. 92, 2010, pp. 113-121.
15
[16] Kumar J.S., Reddy B.S., Reddy C.E., Nonlinear bending analysis of functionally graded plates using higher order theory, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 3, 2012, pp. 3010-3022.
16
[17] Otter J.R.H., Day A.S., Tidal flow computations, The Engineer, 209, 1960, pp. 177-182.
17
[18] DayA.S., An introduction to dynamic relaxation, The Engineer, vol. 19, 1965, pp. 218-221.
18
[19] Otter J.R.H., Computations for prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels using dynamic relaxation, Nuclear Structural Engineering, vol. 1, 1965, pp. 61-75.
19
[20] Turvey G.J., Osman M.Y., Elastic large deflection analysis of isotropic rectangular Mindlin plates, International Journal of Mechanical sciences, vol. 32, 1990, pp. 315-328.
20
[21] Falahatgar S.R., Salehi M., Dynamic relaxation nonlinear viscoelastic analysis of annular sector composite plate, Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 43, 2009, pp. 257-275.
21
[22] Turvey G.J., Salehi M., DR large deflection analysis of sector plates, Computers and Structures, vol. 34, 1990, pp. 101-112.
22
[23] Turvey G.J., Salehi M., Computer-generated elasto-plastic design data for pressure loaded circular plates, Computers and Structures, vol. 41, 1991, pp. 1329-1340.
23
[24] Salehi M., Shahidi A.G., Large deflection analysis of sector Mindlin plates, Computers and Structures, vol. 52, 1994, pp. 987-998.
24
[1] Koizumi M., The concept of FGM, Ceramic Transactions, Functionally Gradient. Materials, vol. 34, 1993, pp. 3-10.
25
[2] Aboudi J., Pindera M.J., Arnold S.M., Thermoelastic theory for the response of materials functionally graded in Two Directions, International Journal of Solid and Structures, vol. 33, 1996, pp. 931-966.
26
[3] Aboudi J., Pindera M.J., Arnold S.M., Elastic response of metal matrix composites with tailores microstructures to thermal gradient, International Journal of Solid and Structures, vol. 31, 1994, pp. 1393-1428.
27
[4] Aboudi J., Pindera M.J., Arnold S.M., Higher order theory for functionally graded materials, Composites Part B, vol. 30, 1999, pp. 777-832.
28
[5] Reddy J.N., Praveen G.N., Nonlinear transient thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded ceramic-metal plates, , International Journal of Solid and Structures, vol. 35, 1998, pp. 4457-4476.
29
[6] Reddy J.N., Wang C.M., Kitipornchai S., Axisymmetric bending of functionally graded circular and annular plates, , European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids, vol. 18, 1999, pp. 185-199.
30
[7] Reddy J.N., Analysis of functionally graded plates, International Journal for Numerical Method in Engineering, vol. 47, 2000, pp. 663-684.
31
[8] Reddy J.N., Cheng Z.Q., Three-dimensional thermo-mechanical deformation of functionally graded rectangular plate, European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids, vol. 20, 2001, pp. 841-855.
32
[9] Cheng Z.Q., Batra R.C., Three-dimensional deformation of a functionally graded elliptic plate, Composite Part B, vol. 31, 2000, pp. 97-106.
33
[10] Cheng Z.Q., BatraR.C., Deflection relationships between the homogeneous Kirchhoff plate theory and different functionally graded plate theories, Archive of mechanics, vol. 52, 2000, pp. 143-158.
34
[11] Kashtalyan M., Three-dimensional elasticity solution for bending of functionally graded rectangular plates,European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids, vol. 23, 2004, pp. 853-864.
35
[12] Woo J., Meguid S.A., Nonlinear analysis of functionally graded platesand shallow shells,International Journal of Solid and Structures, vol. 38, 2001, pp. 9-21.
36
[13] Yang J., Shen H.S., Non-linear analysis of functionally graded plates under transverse and in-plane loads, International Journal of Non-linear Mechanics, vol. 38, 2003, pp. 467-482.
37
[14] Ghannad Pour S.A.M., Alinia M.M., Large deflection behavior of functionally graded plates under pressure loads, Composite Structures, 75, 2006, pp. 67-71.
38
[15] Alibeigloo A., Exact solution for thermo-elastic response of functionally graded rectangular plates, Composite Structures, vol. 92, 2010, pp. 113-121.
39
[16] Kumar J.S., Reddy B.S., Reddy C.E., Nonlinear bending analysis of functionally graded plates using higher order theory, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 3, 2012, pp. 3010-3022.
40
[17] Otter J.R.H., Day A.S., Tidal flow computations, The Engineer, 209, 1960, pp. 177-182.
41
[18] DayA.S., An introduction to dynamic relaxation, The Engineer, vol. 19, 1965, pp. 218-221.
42
[19] Otter J.R.H., Computations for prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels using dynamic relaxation, Nuclear Structural Engineering, vol. 1, 1965, pp. 61-75.
43
[20] Turvey G.J., Osman M.Y., Elastic large deflection analysis of isotropic rectangular Mindlin plates, International Journal of Mechanical sciences, vol. 32, 1990, pp. 315-328.
44
[21] Falahatgar S.R., Salehi M., Dynamic relaxation nonlinear viscoelastic analysis of annular sector composite plate, Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 43, 2009, pp. 257-275.
45
[22] Turvey G.J., Salehi M., DR large deflection analysis of sector plates, Computers and Structures, vol. 34, 1990, pp. 101-112.
46
[23] Turvey G.J., Salehi M., Computer-generated elasto-plastic design data for pressure loaded circular plates, Computers and Structures, vol. 41, 1991, pp. 1329-1340.
47
[24] Salehi M., Shahidi A.G., Large deflection analysis of sector Mindlin plates, Computers and Structures, vol. 52, 1994, pp. 987-998.
48
[25] Turvey G.J., SalehiM., Circular plates with one diametral stiffener-an elastic large deflection analysis, Computersand Structures, vol. 63, 1997, pp. 775-783.
49
[26] Golmakani E., KadkhodayanM., Nonlinear bending analysis of annular FGM plates using higher-order shear deformation plate Theories, Composite Structures, vol. 93, 2011, pp. 973-982.
50
[27] Delale F., Erdogan F., The crack problem for a nonhomogeneous plane, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 50, 1983, pp. 609-614.
51
[28] Reddy J.N., Mechanics of laminated Composite Plates and Shells Theory and Analysis, Second Edition, CRC Press, 2004, Boca Raton, FL.
52
[29] Chajes A., Principles of Structural Stability Theory, Prentice-Hall, 1974.
53
[30] Cassel A.C., Hobbs R.E., Numerical stability of dynamic relaxation analysis of non-linear structures, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, vol. 10, 1976. pp. 1407-1410.
54
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Study Effect of Deformation Nanochannel Wall Roughness on The Water-Copper Nano-Fluids Poiseuille Flow Behavior
In the nanochannel flow behavior with respect to expand their applications in modern systems is of utmost importance. According to the results obtained in this study, the condition of nonslip on the wall of the nanochannel is not acceptable because in the nano dimensions, slip depends on different parameters including surface roughness. In this study, keeping the side area roughness, deformation effects on fluid flow behavior is investigated. Modeling software open source LAMMPS with equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out. Unlike previous studies, existence fluid in laboratory conditions as water-copper nanofluids used. The results showed that rectangular was the most effective and triangular was least effective roughness on flow behavior, resulting in a rough triangular nanochannel slip occurs with more intensity.Existence roughness on the surface increases the number of oscillations in the fluid layer but amplitude near the wall is smooth to rough increased. Nanoparticles also increase the impact on the flow properties
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_517902_60918d3154ffe862c53b15df8a23cd66.pdf
2015-05-22
29
40
Molecular dynamics simulations
Nanofluids
water-copper
the flow dynamic behavior
M.M.
Amrollahi Pourshirazi
mohammad.amrolahi@iaukhsh.ac.ir
1
MSc Student, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Isfahan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
D.
Toghraie
toghraei@iaukhsh.ac.ir
2
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Isfahan, Iran
AUTHOR
A.R.
Azimian
azimian@iaukhsh.ac.ir
3
Professor Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Isfahan, Iran.
AUTHOR
[1] Schoch, R., J. Han, and P. Renaud, Transport phenomena in nanofluidics. Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 80, No. 3, 2008, pp. 839-883.
1
[2] Perry, J. and S. Kandlikar, Review of fabrication of nanochannels for single phase liquid flow. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, vol. 2, No. 3, 2006, pp. 185-193.
2
[3] Mijatovic, D., J.C.T. Eijkel, and A. van den Berg, Technologies for nanofluidic systems: top-down vs. bottom-up-a review. Lab on a Chip, vol. 5, No. 5, 2005 pp. 492-500.
3
[4] Eijkel, J.T. and A. Berg, Nanofluidics: what is it and what can we expect from it? Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, vol. 1, No. 3, 2005, pp. 249-267.
4
[5] Abgrall, P. and N.T. Nguyen, Nanofluidic Devices and Their Applications. Analytical Chemistry, vol. 80, No. 7, 2008, pp. 2326-2341.
5
[6] Alder, B.J. and T.E. Wainwright, Studies in Molecular Dynamics. I. General Method. The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 31, No. 2, 1959, pp. 459-466.
6
[7] Succi, S., A.A. Mohammad, and J. Horbach, Lattice–Boltzmann simulation of dense nanoflows: a comprison with molecular dynamics and navier-stokes solutions. International Journal of Modern Physics C, vol. 18, No. 4, 2007, pp. 667-675.
7
[8] Noorian, H., D. Toghraie, and A.R. Azimian, The effects of surface roughness geometry of flow undergoing Poiseuille flow by molecular dynamics simulation. Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 50, No. 1, 2014, pp. 95-104.
8
[9] Sofos, F., T.E. Karakasidis, and A. Liakopoulos, Effect of wall roughness on shear viscosity and diffusion in nanochannels. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 53, No. 20, 2010, pp. 3839-3846.
9
[10] Kamali, R. and A. Kharazmi, Molecular dynamics simulation of surface roughness effects on nanoscale flows. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol. 50, N. 3, 2011, pp. 226-232.
10
[11] Noorian, H., D. Toghraie, and A.R. Azimian, Molecular dynamics simulation of Poiseuille flow in a rough nano channel with checker surface roughnesses geometry. Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 50, No. 1, 2014, pp. 105-113.
11
[12] Jiang, L. and L. Wen, Construction of biomimetic smart nanochannels for confined water. National Science Review, vol. 1, No. 1, 2014, pp. 144–156.
12
[13] Mark, P. and L. Nilsson, Structure and Dynamics of the TIP3P, SPC, and SPC/E Water Models at 298 K. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 105, No. 43, 2001, pp. 9954-9960.
13
[14] Guevara-Carrion, G., J. Vrabec, and H. Hasse, Prediction of self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of water and its binary mixtures with methanol and ethanol by molecular simulation. The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 134, No. 7, 2011.
14
[15] Bertolini, D. and A. Tani, Thermal conductivity of water: Molecular dynamics and generalized hydrodynamics results. Physical Review E, vol. 56, No. 4,1997, pp. 4135-4151.
15
[16] Allen, M.P. and D.J. Tildesley, Computer simulation of liquids, 1989, New-York: Oxford University Press.
16
[17] Tironi, I.G., R.M. Brunne, and W.F. van Gunsteren, On the relative merits of flexible versus rigid models for use in computer simulations of molecular liquids. Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 250, No. 1, 1996, pp. 19-24.
17
[18] Habershon, S., T.E. Markland, and D.E. Manolopoulos, Competing quantum effects in the dynamics of a flexible water model. The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 131, No. 2, 2009.
18
[19] Hail, J.M., Molecular dynamics simulation: Elementary Methods, 1992, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
19
[20] Frenkel, D. and B. Smit, Understanding molecular dynamics: From Algorithm to Applications, second edition, 2002, New-York: Academic Press.
20
[21] Jones, J.E., On the Determination of Molecular Fields. II. From the Equation of State of a Gas. Vol. 106, 1924, pp. 463-477.
21
[22] Rapaport, D.C., The Art of Molecular Dynamics Simulation. 1996: Cambridge University Press, 414.
22
[23] Everaers, R. and M. Ejtehadi, Interaction potentials for soft and hard ellipsoids. Physical Review E, vol. 67, No. 4, 2003.
23
[24] Tadros, T.F., Colloids in Paints: Colloids and Interface Science, Vol. 6. 2010, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim.
24
[25] Pashley, R.M. and M.E. Karaman, Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry, 2004, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
25
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Dynamic Stability Analysis of a Beam Excited by a Sequence of Moving Mass Particles
In this paper, the dynamic stability analysis of a simply supported beam carrying a sequence of moving masses is investigated. Many applications such as motion of vehicles or trains on bridges, cranes transporting loads along their span, fluid transfer pipe systems and the barrel of different weapons can be represented as a flexible beam carrying moving masses. The periodical traverse of masses over the beam results a linear time periodic problem. Floquet theory and Incremental Harmonic Balance (IHB) method are used to obtain the boundary of stable and unstable regions in the plane of moving mass parameters. Results of IHB method do verify the boundary curve separating the stable and unstable regions generated by Floquet theory. Also the result of numerical simulations confirms the result of the applied semi-analytical methods.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_517903_3ac9e3fd2c96b2a0f5076d73526d8a1e.pdf
2015-05-22
41
49
Beam-moving mass
Dynamic stability
Incremental harmonic balance method
Floquet's theory
M.
Pirmoradian
pirmoradian@iaukhsh.ac.ir
1
- Assistant Prof., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1]. Willis, R., “Report of the Commissioners Appointed to inquire into the application of iron to railway structures”, Appendix B, Stationery Office, London, England, 1849.
1
[2]. Stokes, G.G., Sir, Discussion of a differential equation relating to the breaking of railway bridges, Mathematical and physical papers, 2nd edition, reprinted 1966, originally printed as Transactions of Cambridge Philosophical Society, 1849.
2
[3]. Ayre, R.S., Jacobson, L.S., and Hsu, C.S., Transverse vibration of one and two span beams under the action of a moving mass load, Proceedings of the First U.S. National Congress on Applied Mechanics, 1952,pp. 81-90.
3
[4]. Inglis, C.E., “A mathematical treatise on vibrations in railway bridges”, Cambridge University Press, London, 1934.
4
[5]. Hillerborg, A., “Dynamic influences of smoothly running loads on simply supported girders”, Inst. of Structural Engineering and Bridge Building of the Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm, 1951.
5
[6]. Fryba, L., “Vibration of solids and structures under moving loads”, Thomas Telford Ltd., Third Edition, 1999.
6
[7]. Yang, Y. B., Yau, J. D. and Wu, Y. S., “Vehicle bridge interaction dynamics: with applications to high speed railways”, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2004.
7
[8]. Mackertich, S., Response of a beam to a moving mass”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 92, No. 3, 1992, pp. 1766-1769.
8
[9]. Gbadeyan, J. A., and Oni, S. T., “Dynamic behaviour of beams and rectangular plates under moving loads”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 182, No. 5,1995, pp.677-695.
9
[10]. Esmailzadeh, E. and Ghorashi, M., “Vibration analysis of a Timoshenko beam subjected to a travelling mass”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 199, No. 4, 1997, pp. 615- 628.
10
[11]. Foda, M.A., and Abduljabbar, Z., A dynamic green function for the response of a beam structure to a moving mass, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 210, 1998, pp. 295-306.
11
[12]. Michaltsos, G.T. and Sophianopoulos, D., and Kounadis, A.N., The effect of moving mass and other parameters on the dynamic response of a simply supported beam”. Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 191, 1996, pp. 357-362.
12
[13]. Michaltsos ,G.T. and Kounadis, A.N., The effects of Centripetal and Coriolis forces on the dynamic response of light bridges under moving loads, Journal of Vibration and Control, vol. 7, 2001, pp.315-326.
13
[14]. Wu, J.J., Dynamic analysis of an inclined beam due to moving loads, Journal of Sound and Vibration,vol. 288, 2005, pp. 107-131.
14
[15]. Rao, V.G., Linear dynamics of an elastic beam under moving loads, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics,vol. 122, 2000, pp. 281-289.
15
[16]. Siddiqui, S.A.Q. and Golnaraghi, M.F. and Heppler, G.R., Dynamics of a flexible beam carrying a moving mass using perturbation, numerical and time frequency analysis techniques, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 229, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1023-1055.
16
[17]. Mamandi, A. and Kargarnovin, M.H., and Farsi, S., An investigation on effects of traveling mass with variable velocity on nonlinear dynamic response of an inclined Timoshenko beam with different boundary conditions, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 52, 2010, pp. 1694-1708.
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[18]. Nikkhoo, A. and Rofooei, F.R., and Shadnam, M.R., Dynamic behavior and modal control of beams under moving mas”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 306, 2007, pp. 712- 724.
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[19]. Yau, D.T.W. and Fung, E.H.K., Dynamic response of a rotating flexible arm carrying a moving mass, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 257, No. 1, 2002, pp. 107-117.
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[20]. Nayyeri Amiri, S., and Onyango M., Simply supported beam response on elastic foundation carrying repeated rolling concentrated loads, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 5, No.1, 2010, pp. 52- 66.
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[21]. Eftekhari, S.A. and Jafari, A.A., Coupling Ritz method and triangular quadrature rule for moving mass problem, Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 79, issue 2, 2012, pp. 021018.
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[22]. Nelson, H.D., and Conover, R.A., Dynamic stability of a beam carrying moving masses, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 38, Series E, 1971, pp. 1003-1006.
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[23]. Benedetti, G.A., Dynamic stability of a beam loaded by a sequence of moving mass particles, Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 41, 1974, pp. 1069-1071.
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[24]. Katz, R., Lee C.W., Ulsoy, A.G., and Scott, R.A., Dynamic stability and response of a beam subjected to a deflection dependent moving load, Journal of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress, and Reliability in Design, vol. 109, 1987, pp. 361-365.
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[25]. Mackertich, S., Dynamic stability of a beam excited by a sequence of moving mass particles, Acoustical Society of America,2004, pp. 1416-1419.
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[26]. Aldraihem, O.J., and Baz, A., Dynamic stability of stepped beams under moving loads, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 250, No. 5, 2002, pp. 835-848.
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[27]. Verichev, S.N., and Metrikine, A.V., Instability of vibrations of mass that moves uniformly along a beam on a periodically inhomogeneous foundation, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 260, 2003, pp. 901-925.
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[28]. Verichev, S.N., and Metrikine, A.V., Instability of a bogie moving on flexibly supported Timoshenko beam, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 253, No. 3, pp. 635-668, 2002.
28
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Nonlinear Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour Analysis of Activated Composites With Shape Memory Alloy Fibres
General thermo-mechanical behavior of composites reinforced by shape memory alloy fibers is predicted using a three-dimensional analytical micromechanical method to consider the effect of fibers activation. Composite due to the micromechanical method can be exposed to general normal and shear mechanical and thermal loading which cause to activate the shape memory alloy fibers within polymeric matrix finally. Considering the capabilities of the presented micromechanical model; the fibers arrangement within the matrix is simulated as square distribution. Representative volume element of the composite system consists of two-phases including shape memory alloys fibers and polymeric matrix which is exposed to axial cyclic mechanical loading. In order to display the effect of fiber activation on the overall response of composite, the behavior of polymeric matrix is assumed elastic and shape memory alloy fibers is considered nonlinear inelastic based on 3-D Lagoudas model is simulated. The model is capable to predict the phase transformation and super elastic behavior of shape memory alloys. In order to develop thermo-mechanical equations of the shape memory alloy in the unit cell model, Newton-Raphson nonlinear numerical solution method is used. In the results, the effects of significant parameters on the thermo-mechanical response of composites are investigated and then the composite thermo-mechanical response is demonstrated in the high and low temperature interval and the effect of shape memory alloy wire activation in the composite is addressed. The presented results show that the composite residual strain in mechanical unloading decreases by enhancing temperature. Therefore, the composite residual strain approaches to zero when the temperature is higher than at which austenite transformation finishes. Comparison between the present research results with available previous researches shows good agreement
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_517905_418735a1644069bbab54d5730b16f10f.pdf
2015-05-22
49
59
Shape Memory Alloy
Micromechanics
Shape memory effect
Activated composite
S.
Moghbeli
1
MSc. Student, Faculty of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
M.J.
Mahmoodi
mj_mahmoudi@sbu.ac.ir
2
Assistant professor, Faculty of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Lagoudas D.C., ShapeMemory Alloys: Modeling and Engineering Applications, Springer, 2008
1
[2] Birman V., Review of mechanics of shape memory alloy structures, Applied Mechanics Reviews, 506, 1997, pp. 29-45.
2
[3] Ostachowicz W.M., Krawczuk M., and Zak A., Dynamics and buckling of multilayer composite plates with embedded SMA weirs, Journal of Composite Structures, 48, 2000, pp. 163-167.
3
[4] Birman V., Saravanos D.A. and Hopkins D.A., Micromechanics of Composites With Shape Memory Alloy Fibers in Uniform Thermal Fields, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, 34(9), 1998, pp. 1905-1912.
4
[5] Lagoudas D.C., BO, Z. Qidwai M.A., Micromechanics of Active Metal Matrix Composites with Shape Memory Alloy Fibers, in Inelasticity and Micromechanics of Metal Matrix Composites, Studies in Applied Mechanics, G.Z. Voyiadjis and J-W. Ju, eds., Vol. 41, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 163-190, 1994.
5
[6] Cherkaoui M., Sun Q.P. and Song G.Q., Micromechanics modelling of composite with ductile matrix and shape memory alloy reinforcement, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 37, 2000, pp. 1577-1594.
6
[7] Aboudi J., Micromechanical analysis of composites by the method of cells, Applied Mechanics Reviews, 49, 1996, pp. 83-91.
7
[8] Paley M. and Aboudi j., Micromechanical Analysis of Composites by the Generalized Cells Model, Mechanics of Materials, 14, 1992, pp. 127-139.
8
[9] Jarali C.S., Raja S. and Upadhya A.R., Micro-mechanical behaviors of SMA composite materials under hygro-thermo-elastic strain fields, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 45, 2008, pp .2399-2419.
9
[10] Aboudi J, Micromechanically based constitutive equations for shape memory fiber composites undergoing large deformations. Smart Material and Structure, 13, 2004, pp. 828-837.
10
[11] Auricchio F., A robust integration-algorithm for a finite-strain shape-memory- alloy super elastic model, International Journal of plasticity, 17, 2001, pp. 971-990.
11
[12] Freed Y. and Aboudi J., Thermo mechanically coupled micromechanical analysis of shape memory alloy composites undergoing transformation induced plasticity. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 20(23), 2009, pp. 23-38.
12
[13] Auricchio F., Reali A. and Stefanelli U., A three-dimensional model describing stress-induced solid phase transformation with permanent inelasticity. International Journal of plasticity, 23, 2007, pp. 207-226.
13
[14] Marfia S. and Sacco E., Analysis of SMA composite laminates using a multiscale modelling technique. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 70, 2007, pp. 1182-1208.
14
[15] Sepe V., Marfia, S. and Sacco, E., A non-uniform TFA homogenization technique based on piecewise interpolation functions of the inelastic field, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 50, 2013, pp.725-742.
15
[16] Evangelista V., Marfia S. and Sacco E., Phenomenological 3D and 1D consistent models for SMA materials, Computational Mechanics. 44, 2009, pp. 405-421.
16
[17] Damanpack A.R., Aghdam M.M., Shakeri M., Micro-mechanics of composite with SMA fibers embedded in metallic/ polymeric matrix under off-axial loadings, European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids. 49, 2015, pp. 467-480.
17
[18] Aghdam M.M., Smith D. J. and Pavier M. J., Finite Element Micromechanical Modelling of Yield and Collapse behavior of Metal Matrix Composites, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 48(3), 2000, pp. 499-528.
18
[19] Mahmoodi M. J., Aghdam M. M. and Shakeri M., Micromechanical modeling of interface damage of metal matrix composites subjected to off-axis loading, Materials & Design. 31(2), 2010, pp. 829-836.
19
[20] Gilat R. and Aboudi J., Dynamic response of active composite plates: shape memory alloy fibers in polymeric/metallic matrices, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 41, 2004, pp.5717-5731.
20
[21] Chapra S.C., Applied Numerical Methods with Matlab for Engineers and Scientists, 3rd Ed, Raghothaman Srinivasan, 2012.
21
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Optimization of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-A360 Produced by Semi-Solid Casting
Semi-Solid Casting (SSM) is a new process that could produce globular structures with mechanical properties. The cooling slope method (CLM) is a one of this process that was employed to produce the A360 feedstock. In this method, The dendritic primary phase in the conventionally cast A356 alloy has transformed into a non-dendritic one. In this paper, The molten alloy with the temperature (PT) of 670, 650, 630, 610 and 590ºC was poured on the surface of the plate where cooled with water circulation in various cooling angles (CA) and lengths (CL). After pouring, the melt which became semi-solid at the end of the plate was consequently poured into cylindrical steel mold with different mold temperatures (MT). Then, a back-propagation neural network was design to correlate the process parameters. Finally, genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize the process parameters. Results indicated that the hardness of samples changed with PT and MT. In the best condition with changes on PT, the hardness increased 15% and it increased 5% with changes on MT. The hardness is increased around 12% and 9% with changes on CL and CA consequently. The strength is increased around 13% and 6% with changes on CL and CA consequently.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_517906_8d693da894032efe11aa1dd2cc99e9f4.pdf
2015-05-22
59
71
Casting
Al-A360
Optimization
Natural Network
Genetic Algorithm
Amin
Kolahdooz
aminkolahdooz@iaukhsh.ac.ir
1
Assistant Professor, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Isfahan/Khomeinishahr, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
M.
Loh-Mousavi
lohmousavi@yahoo.com
2
Assistant Prof., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Chou H.N., Govender G., Ivanchev L., “Opportunities and challenges for use of SSM forming in the aerospace industry”, TTP, solid state phenomena, Vol. 116-117, 2006, pp. 92-95.
1
[2] Jaffari M.R., Zebarjad S.M., Kolahan F., “Simulation of A356 Aluminium Alloy Using finite element method”, Matertials science engineering A, 2007, pp. 454-455.
2
[3] Motegi T., Tanabe F., sugiura E., “Continuous casting of semisolid aluminium alloys”, Material Science Forum, vol. 1, 2002, pp. 203–208.
3
[4] Shiomi M., Takano D., Osakada K., Otsu M., “Forming of aluminum alloy at temperatures just below melting point”, International Journal Machine Tool Manufacture, 2003, pp. 229–235.
4
[5] Giordano P., Chiarmetta G., “Thixo and rheo casting: comparison on a high production volume component”, Proceedings of the 7th international conference on semisolid processing of alloys and composites, Japan, June, 2002, p. 665–70.
5
[6] Fan Z., “Method and apparatus for producing semisolid metal slurries and shaped components”, Revision Modify Physics, vol. 52, 1980, pp. 1–58.
6
[7] Fan Z., Ji S., Liv G., Zhang E., “Development of the Rheo Die Casting Process for Mg Alloys and Their components”, BCAST, Brunel Uneversity, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UB. 3PH, VK, 2005.
7
[8] Birol Y., “A357 thixoforming feedstock produced by cooling slope casting”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 186, 2007, pp. 94-101.
8
[9] مرادیان م.، اکبری غ.ح.، بررسی تاثیر پارامترهای ریختگری بر ریزساختار Al-A357 تولید شده در حالت نیمه جامد به روش تیکسوکستینگ، چهارمین کنفرانس شکلدهی فلزات و مواد ایران، سال 1387.
9
[10] Haga T., Kapranos p., “Billetless simple thixoforming process”, Journal of matrial processing Technology, vol. 130-131, 2002, pp. 581-586.
10
[11] Garat M., Blais S., Pluchion C., Loue W.R., “Aluminum semi-solid processing from the billet to the finished part”, 5th international conference on semi-solid processing of alloys and composites, Colorado, 1998.
11
[12] Kjung H., Kang C.G., Jung K.D., “Control liquid segration of semi-solid aluminum alloys during intelligent compression test”, Intelligent processing and manufacturing of materials, 1999, pp. 609-703.
12
[13] Li H.J., Qi L.H., Han H.M. , Guo L.J., “Neural network modeling and optimization of semi-solid extrusion for aluminum matrix composites”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol 151, 2004, pp. 126–132.
13
[14] Jiang H., Nguyen T.H., Prud’homme M., “Optimal control of induction heating for semi-solid aluminum alloy forming”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 189, 2007, pp. 182-191.
14
]15[ نیلی احمد آبادی م.، مهرآرا ح.، آشوری ص.، غیاثینژاد ج.، “فرآوری نیمهجامد آلیاژ آلومینیم 356 Aبه روش سطح شیبدار؛ بررسی تاثیر دمای سطح و دمای بارریزی به کمک آلیاژ 356 A"، مجله ریختهگری، سال بیست و هفتم، شماره 88، پاییز 1386.
15
[16] Park J.H., Choi J.C., Kim Y.H., Yoon J.M., “A study of the optimum reheating process for A356 Alloy in semi-solid forging”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 20, no. 4, 2002, pp. 277-283.
16
[17] Nourouzi S., Ghavamodini S.M., Baseri H., Kolahdooz A., Botkan M., “Microstructure evolution of A356 aluminum alloy produced by cooling slope method”, Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 402, 2012, pp. 272-276.
17
[18] Hosseini S.S., Nourouzi S., Hosseinipour S.J., Kolahdooz A., “Effect of slope plate variable and pouring temperature on semi-solid microstructure of A356 aluminum alloy”, steel metal Research, 2012, pp. 779-782.
18