ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Effect of Particle Volume Fraction on the Tensile Properties of Composite Al6061/SiC Materials by Hot Extrusion
In the present study the effect of phase volume fraction on the reinforcement of microstructure and tensile properties of composite extrusion process Al6061/SiC has been studied. For this purpose, the base alloy Al6061 using pure aluminum ingots, silicon, of Al-50% Mg, Al-10% Cr and a thin copper rod was prepared. Next, the composite Al6061/5% SiC, Al6061/10% SiC, Al6061/15% SiC and Al6061/20% SiC through the addition of various amounts of silicon carbide particles was prepared by cast stirring. For composite samples containing different volume fractions of the reinforced SiC, hot extrusion operation was performed. Evaluation of microstructure using light and electron microscope was performed. During the study, it was observed that with the increasing amount of reinforcement, porosity and pores in the microstructure was increased. The extrusion process reduces the amount of porosity as well as creating fine reinforcement. In order to investigate the effect of extrusion process on the mechanical properties of the composite, tensile test were used. Results showed that, with increasing SiC weight to 5 percent, it will increase ultimate tensile strength of the composite. In addition, it is shown that the extrusion process will result a homogenous particles distribution which in turn will improve the tensile stress.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_515314_996a84709d07748ae8f629e96de990f2.pdf
2012-06-21
1
8
Aluminium Matrix Composite
Silicon Carbide Particle
Extrusion Process
Porosity
Tensile Properties
Mohammad Reza
Sattari
1
AUTHOR
Mohammad
Ranjbaran
m.ranjbaran@srttu.edu
2
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Miracle D.B., “Metal matrix composites- From science to technological significance, Composites Science and Technology, vol. 65, 2005, pp. 2526-2540.
1
[2] Matthews F.L., Rawlings R.D., “Composite Materials: Engineering and Science”, 2009, London, Chapman & Hall.
2
[3] Callister W.D., “Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction”, Wiley Asiua Student, 2008, USA, Chapman & Hall.
3
[4] Taha M.A., “Practicalization of Cast Metal Matrix Composites (MMCCs)”, Materials and Design, vol. 22(6), 2001, pp. 431-441.
4
[5] Allison J.E., Cole. G.S., “Metal-Matrix Composites in the Automotive Industry: Opportunities and Challenges”, JOM, vol. 45(1), 1993, pp. 19-24.
5
[6] Srivatsan T.S., Ibrahim I.A., Mohamed F.A., Lavernia E.J., “Processing Techniques for Particulate Reinforced Metal Aluminum Matrix Composites”, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 26(22), 1991, pp. 5965- 5978.
6
[7] Clegg A., “Squeeze Casting, A New Process Technology for the Engineer”, Foundry Trade Journal, vol. 166(354), 1993, pp. 484-485.
7
[8] Wua Y., Kim G.Y., Anderson I.E., Lograsso T.A., “Fabrication of Al6061 composite with high SiC particle loading by semi-solid powder processing”, vol. 58(13), 2010, pp. 4398-4405.
8
[9] Verma S.K., Fishman S.G., “Manufacturing of Composites by Squeeze Casting”, Proceeding of the International Symposium on Advances in Cast Reinforced Metal Composites, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 1988, pp. 24-30
9
[10] Cöcen Ü., Önel K., “Ductility and strength of extruded SiCp/aluminum-alloy composites”, Composites Science and Technology, vol. 62(12), 2002, pp. 275-282
10
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Applying Differential Transform Method on the Effect of the Elastic Foundation on the out - Plane Displacement of the Functionally Graded Circular Plates
In this paper, the effect of elastic foundation on the out of plane displacement of functionally graded circular plates using differential transform method is presented. Differential transform method is a semi-analytical-numerical solution technique that is capable to solve various types of differential equations. Using this method, governing differential equations are transformed into recursive relations and boundary conditions are changed into algebraic equations. Since the problem of plates on elastic foundation have a great practical importance in modern engineering structures and Winkler foundation model is widely used, plate is assumed on Winkler elastic foundation. In this article functionally graded plate is considered in which material properties vary through the thickness direction by power-law distribution. Analysis results of out of plane displacement of plate on elastic foundation under uniform transverse loads are obtained in different terms of foundation stiffness, material properties and boundary conditions. In order to validate the solution technique, results obtained are compared with the results of the finite element method (FEM).
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_515323_04f30a320a5d480a121bef7e56b1254a.pdf
2012-06-21
9
17
Differential transform method (DTM)
Circular plates
Winkler elastic foundation
Functionally graded materials (FGM)
Out of plane displacement
Somayeh
Abbasi
1
AUTHOR
Fatemeh
Farhatnia
farhatnia@iaukhsh.ac.ir
2
LEAD_AUTHOR
Saeid
Rasouli Jazi
3
AUTHOR
1] Yamanouchi M., Koizumi M., Shiota I., Proceedings of the first international symposium on functionally gradient materials, Sendai, Japan, 1990.
1
[2] Reddy J.N., Wang C.M., Kitipornchai S., Axisymmetric bending of functionally graded circular and annular plate, European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids, vol. 18, 1999, pp.185–199.
2
[3] Najafzadeh M.M., Eslami M.R., Buckling analysis of circular plates of functionally graded materials under uniform radial compression, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 44, 2002, pp. 2479–2493
3
[4] Abrate S., Free vibration, buckling, and static deflections of functionally graded plates, Composites Science and Technology, vol. 66, 2006, pp. 2383–2394.
4
[5] Bayat M., Sahari B.B., Saleem M., Ali A., Wong S.V., Bending analysis of a functionally graded rotating disk based on the first order shear deformation theory, Applied Mathematical Modeling, vol. 33, 2009, pp. 4215-4230.
5
[61] Bodaghi M., Saidi A.R.,Stability analysis of functionally graded rectangular plates under nonlinearly varying in-plane loading resting on elastic foundation, Archive of Applied Mechanic, vol. 81, 2011, pp. 765–780.
6
[7] Zenkour A.M., Allam M.N.M., Shaker M.O, Radwan A.F, On the simple and mixed first-order theories for plates resting on elastic foundations, Acta Mechanical, vol. 220, 2011, pp. 33–46.
7
[8] Gupta U.S., Ansari A.H., Sharma S, Buckling and vibration of polar orthotropic circular plate resting on Winkler foundation, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 297, 2006, pp. 457–476.
8
[9] Matsunaga H., Vibration and buckling of deep beam-columns on two-parameter elastic foundations, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 228, 1999, pp. 359-376.
9
[10] El-Mously M., Fundamental frequencies of Timoshenko beams mounted on Pasternak foundatıon ,Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 228, 1999, pp. 452-457.
10
[11] Chen C.N., Vibration of prismatic beam on an elastic foundation by the differential quadrature element method, Computers and Structures, vol. 77, 2000, pp. 1–9.
11
[12] Coşkun İ, The response of a finite beam on a tensionless Pasternak foundation subjected to a harmonic load, European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids, vol. 22, 2003, pp. 151–161.
12
[13] Chen W.Q., Lü C.F., Bian Z.G., A mixed method for bending and free vibration of beams resting on a Pasternak elastic foundation, Applied Mathematical Modeling, vol. 28, 2004, pp. 877–890.
13
[14] Luo H., Pozrikidis C., Buckling of a circular plate resting over an elastic foundation in simple shear flow, Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 75, 2008, pp. 1-6.
14
[15] Benyoucef S., Mechab I., Tounsi A., Fekrar A., Atmane H.A., Bedia E.A., Bending of thick functionally graded plates resting on Winkler- Pasternak elastic foundations, Mechanics of Composite Materials, vol. 4, 2010, pp. 425-434.
15
[16] Zhou J.K., Differential transformation and its applications for electrical circuits, Huarjung University Press, Wuuhahn, China, 1986.
16
[17] Arikoglu A., Ozkol I., Solution of boundary value problems for integro-differential equations by using differential transform method, Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 168, 2005, pp. 1145–1158.
17
[18] Momani Sh., Noor M.A., Numerical comparison of methods for solving a special fourth-order boundary value problem, Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 191, 2007, pp. 218–224.
18
[19] Yalcin H.S., Arikoglu A., Ozkol I., Free vibration analysis of circular plates by differential transformation method, Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 212, 2009, pp. 377–386.
19
[20] Chen C.K., Ho S.H., Solving partial differential equations by two dimensional differential transform, Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 106, 1999, pp. 171–179.
20
[21] Yeh Y., Jang M.J., Wang Ch., Analyzing the free vibrations of a plate using finite difference and differential transformation method, Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 178, 2006, pp. 493–501.
21
[22] Özdemir Ö, Kaya MO, Flap wise bending vibration analysis of a rotating tapered cantilever Bernoulli–Euler beam by differential transform method, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 289, 2006, pp. 413–420.
22
[23] Odibat Z., Momani Sh., A generalized differential transform method for linear partial differential equations of fractional order, Applied Mathematics Letters, vol. 21, 2008, pp. 194–199.
23
[24] Zhang D.G., Zhou Y.H., A theoretical analysis of FGM thin plates based on physical neutral surface, Computational Materials Science, vol. 44, 2008, pp. 716-720.
24
[25] Timoshenko S., Woinowsky- Krieger S.,Theory of Plates and Shells, second ed., McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, 1959, pp. 259-281.
25
[26] Li X.Y., Ding H.J., Chen W.Q., Elasticity solutions for a transversely isotropic functionally graded circular plate subject to an axisymmetric transverse load qrk, International Journal of Solids Structures, vol. 45, 2008, pp. 191-210.
26
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of Residual Stress and Fatigue Strength of Steel CK35 in Shot Peening Process
In shot peening process the work piece surface is struck by a large number of balls and compressive residual stress is generated on the surface. So, mechanical properties such as fatigue strength, stress corrosion resistance, smooth shape and ... will improve. In this paper, the balls with a speed of 100 to 200 m/s were struck on the steel samples and fatigue strength compared with specimens without shot peening. The results indicated a significant increase in fatigue strength. Also the balls deep changes on the samples were calculated using ANSYS software and the results were compared with the experimental results. Results showed that, if the ball speed is 100 m/s, it leads 25% increase in fatigue strength while the residual stress will increase to 250 MPa. Furthermore, if the ball speed is 200 m/s, fatigue strength and residual stress increase up to 40% and 300 MPa, respectively. It is also concluded that the stress in the balls is twice as the work piece surface residual stress.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_515330_058e9856007b221d0dc142987e62c437.pdf
2012-06-21
19
29
Shot Peening
Fatigue Test
Residual stress
Steel
Mehdi
Tajdari
tajdari@iuim.ac.ir
1
Professor, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Hamid Reza
Baharvandi
2
Associate Professor, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Ali Reza
Moradkhani
3
MSc Student, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Metals Handbook, Shot Peening, Vol. 9, 1982.
1
[2] Eleiche A.M., Megahed M.M., Abd- Allah N.M., The Shot Peening Effect on the HFC Behavior of High Strength Martensitic Steels, journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 113, 2002, pp. 604-608.
2
[3] Schwarzer J., Schulze V., Vohringer O., Finite Element Simulation of Shot Peening- A Method to Evaluate the Influence of Peening Parameters on Surface Characteristics, Proceedings from International Conference of Shot Peening, ICSP-8, Munich, Germany.
3
[4] Oguri K., Fatigue life enhancement of aluminum alloy for aircraft by Fine Particle Shot Peening (FPSP), Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 211, 2011, pp. 1395-1399.
4
[5] Zhang P., Lindemann J., Influence of shot peening on high cycle fatigue properties of the high-strength wrought magnesium alloy AZ80, Scripta Materialia, vol. 52, 2005, pp. 485–490.
5
[6] Tekeli S., Enhancement of fatigue strength of SAE 9245 steel by shot peening, Materials Letters, vol. 57, 2002, pp.604-608.
6
[7] Zhan K., Jiang C.H., Effect of prestress state on surface layer characteristic of S30432 austenitic stainless steel in shot peening process, Materials & Design, vol. 42, 2012, pp. 89-93.
7
[8] Miao H.Y., Larose S., Perron C., Lévesque M., On the potential applications of a 3D random finite element model for the simulation of shot peening, Advances in Engineering Software, vol. 40, 2009, pp. 1023-1038.
8
[9] Majzoobi G.H., Azizi R., three-D numerical method of shot peening process using multiple shot impacts, Proceeding ISCP-9, 2005, Paris, France.
9
[10] Zoin H. L., a dynamic finite element simulation of the shot-peening Process, Ph.D. thesis, Georgia Institute of technology, USA, 2003.
10
[11] Boyce B.L., Chen X., Hutchinson J.W., Ritchie R.O., the residual stress state due to a spherical hard-body impact., Mechanics of Materials, vol. 33, 2001, pp. 441-454.
11
[12] Guagliano M., Vergani L., Bandini M., Gili F., an approach to relate the shot peening parameters to the induced residual stresses, Proceeding ISCP-9, 1999, Warsaw, Pland.
12
[13] Guagliano M., Relating Almen intensity to residual stresses induced by shot peening: a numerical approach, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 110, 2001, pp. 277-286.
13
[14] Luo J., Harding R.A., Bowen P., evaluation of the fatigue behavior of ductile irons with various matrix microstructures, Metallurgical and materials transaction, vol. 33, 2002, pp. 3719-3730.
14
[15] Dai P.Q., He R.Z., Wu W.Q. Mao Z.Y, Mechanical behavior of graphite in fracture of austempered ductile iron, Materials Science and technology, vol. 18, 2002, pp. 1052-1056.
15
[16] Hong T., Ooi J.Y., Shaw B., A numerical simulation to relate the shot peening parameters to the induced residual stresses, Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 15, 2008, pp. 1097-1110
16
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental Analysis of Crashworthiness Behavior of Energy Absorber Tubes Under 3D Oblique Load
Actual applications of the energy absorbers showed that actual loads are not applied in the form of pure axial compression, pure bending or pure torsion. In reality, an energy absorber component may be subjected to combined loading of compression, bending and torsion. A number of previous articles have investigated the behavior of energy absorbers under oblique loading. In such cases, the oblique load was considered as 2D load determined with one angle parameter to the profile of specimen. However, in reality, it is possible that the energy absorber component be under a 3D oblique load condition with three spatial components determined by two angle parameter in 3D space. In present paper, crashworthiness behavior of thin walled tubes is experimentally analyzed under 3D oblique load. To perform this job, a fixture was designed and installed on the universal tensile and compression testing machine. All tests were conducted in quasi-static form and finally a diagram of force and displacement and crushing modes were extracted and the effect of oblique load aspects on energy absorbing characteristics was investigated.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_515335_2fb980c12060aadddc2946f0ccdecfbf.pdf
2012-06-21
31
45
Experimental analysis
energy absorption
Quasi-static Test
3D Oblique Load
Abolfazl
Khalkhali
ab_khalkhali@iust.ac.ir
1
Assistant professor, School of Automotive Engineering, Iran University of Science and Industry, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Alireza
Salour
2
MSc Student, School of Automotive Engineering, Iran University of Science and Industry, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Johnson W., Mamalis AG., Crashworthiness of vehicles. London: Mechanical. Engineering. Publications Ltd., 1978.
1
[2] Johnson W., Reid SR., Metallic energy dissipating systems, Applied Mechanics Review, vol. 31(3), 1978, pp. 277–288.
2
[3] Jones N., Wierzbicki T., editors. Structural crash worthiness, London: Butterworth and Co. Publishers, 1983.
3
[4] Guoxing Lu., Tongxi Yu., Energy Absorption of Structures and Materials. England: Woodhead Publishing Ltd and CRC Press LLC, 2003.
4
[5] Alexander J.M., An approximate analysis of the collapse of thin cylindrical shells under axial loading Quart, Journal of Mechanicals and Applied Mathematics, vol. 13, 1960, pp.1–9.
5
[6] Mamalis A.G., Johnson W., The quasi-static crumpling of thin walled circular cylinders and frusta under axial compression, International Journal of Mechanical Science, vol. 25, 1983, pp. 713–32.
6
[7] Jones N., Abramowicz W., Static and dynamic axial crushing of circular and square tubes. In: Reid SR, editor, Metal forming and Impact Mechanics. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1985, pp. 225.
7
[8] Johnson W., Impact Strength of Material. London: Edward Arnold, 1972.
8
[9] Abramowicz W., The effective crushing distance in axially compressed thin-walled metal columns, International Journal Impact Engineering, vol. 13, 1983, pp. 309-317.
9
[10] Abramowicz W., Jones N., Dynamic axial crushing of circular tubes. International Journal Impact Engineering, vol. 23, 1984, pp. 263-281.
10
[11] Gupta N.K., Velmurugan R., Consideration of internal folding and non-symmetric fold formation axisymmetric axial collapse round tubes, International Journal of Solids Structures, vol. 34, 1997, pp. 2611–30.
11
[12] Han D.C., Park S.H., Collapse behavior of square thin-walled columns subjected to oblique loads, Journal. Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 35, 1999, pp.167-184.
12
[13] Reyes A., Langseth M., Hopperstad O.S., Crashworthiness of aluminum extrusions subjected to oblique loading: experiments and numerical analyses, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 44, 2002, pp. 1965–1984.
13
[14] Reyes A., Langseth M., Hopperstad O.S., Square aluminum tubes subjected to oblique loading, International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 28, 2003, pp.1077–1106.
14
[15] Reyes A., Longseth M., Hopperstad O.S., Aluminum foam-filled extrusions subjected to oblique loading: experimental and numerical study, Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 41, 2004, pp.1645-1675.
15
[16] Ahmad Z., Thambiratnam D.P., Tan A.C.C., Dynamic energy absorption characteristics of foam-filled conical tubes under oblique impact loading, International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 37, 2010, 475–488.
16
[17] Zhibin Li., Jilin Yu., Liuwei Guo., Deformation and energy absorption of aluminum foam-filled tubes subjected to oblique loading, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 54(1), 2012, pp. 48–56.
17
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Experimental Study and FEM Simulation of the Effect of Significant Parameters in the Thixoforging of the Gearbox Cap
Semi-solid forming processes are now used for producing near net shape parts especially in the automotive and aircraft industries. Non Newtonian rheology of semisolid alloys and its dependence on the various parameters such as reheating cycle, method used to produce non-dendritic structure, thermo-shear history etc. have made the simulation of the flow behavior of semisolid material a difficult mater in engineering. One of the semi-solid forming processes is thixoforging process. Thixoforming takes place between liquidous and solidous temperature and liquid phase and solid one that exists at the same time. The significant parameters in this method can be strain rate, friction and temperature terms. In this research, the simulation of thixoforging process is done using Deform-3D software and parameters such as friction factor, process temperature and rams speeds are studied. In order to verify the model, thixoforging tests were conducted with various parameters and under isothermal conditions on the A356 Alloy. The comparison of numerical results at different solid fractions with experimental data is shown. These simulations can provide an accurate model of the process. Also the simulation results had shown the effects of various parameters. Results showed that increasing the mould temperature, causes more inhomogeneous microstructure and therefore the hardness and forming force decreased %12.5 and %20.6 respectively
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_515340_f23d040851ae0b623f5e787fea6996f4.pdf
2012-06-21
47
56
Semi-solid Forming
Thixoforging
Isothermal Forging
Al-A356
Amin
Kolahdooz
1
PhD Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Mazandaran, Iran
AUTHOR
Salman
Nourouzi
s-nourouzi@nit.ac.ir
2
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Mazandaran, Iran
AUTHOR
Mohammad
Bakhshi-Jooybari
3
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Mazandaran, Iran
AUTHOR
Seyyed Jamal
Hosseinipour
4
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Mazandaran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Chou H.N., Govender G., Ivanchev L., Opportunities and challenges for use of SSM forming in the aerospace industry, TTP, solid state phenomena, vol. 116-117, 2006, pp. 92-95.
1
[2] Jaffari M.R., Zebarjad S.M., Kolahan F., Simulation of A356 Aluminium Alloy Using finite element method, Matertials science engineering A, vol. 2007, 454-455.
2
[3] Motegi T., Tanabe F., sugiura E., Continuous casting of semisolid aluminium alloys, Material Science Forum, vol.1, 2002, pp. 203–208.
3
[4] Shiomi M., Takano D., Osakada K., Otsu M., Forming of aluminum alloy at temperatures just below melting point, Internatinal Journal Machine Tool Manufacture, 2003, pp. 229–235.
4
[5] Giordano P., Chiarmetta G., Thixo and rheo casting: comparison on a high production volume component, Proceedings of the 7th international conference on semisolid processing of alloys and composites, Japan, vol. 2002, pp. 665–670.
5
[6] S.M. Ghavamodini, S. Nourouzi, H. Baseri , A. Kolahdooz, S. Kaboli, M. Botkan, A Study of the Effects of Semi-solid Casting Parameters on the Microstructure and Hardness of Al-A356 Alloy, Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies, Istanbul, Turkey , July 2011.
6
[7] Nourouzi S. Ghavamodini S.M. Baseri H. Kolahdooz A., Botkan M., Microstructure evolution of A356 aluminum alloy produced by cooling slope method, Advanced Material Research vol. 402, 2012, pp.272-276.
7
[8] Tzimas E., Zavaliangos A., Evolution of near-equiaxed microstructure in the semisolid state, Material Science Engineering A, vol. 289, 2000, pp. 228–240.
8
[9] Nourouzi S., Bakhshi M., Kolahdooz A., Hosseinipour S.J., Effect of temperature on the Microstructure of semi-solid casting in cooling slope method, Aerospace Mechanics Journal, under Published, vol. 19(3), 2012, pp. 55-65, Persian Language.
9
[10] Bames H.A., Thixotropy—a review, Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanic, Vol. 70, 1997, pp. 1-3.
10
[11] Nourouzi S., Kolahdooz A., Botkan M., Behaviour of A 356 alloy in semi-solid state produced by mechanical stirring, Advanced Material Research, vol. 402, 2012, pp.331-336.
11
4- نتیجه گیری
12
نتایج شبیهسازی فرآیند تیگزوفورجینگ آلومینیم A356 برای تولید قطعه درپوش گیربکس به صورت زیر قابل ارائه میباشد.
13
شبیه سازی انجام گرفته و ارائه پارامترهای وابسته به نرم افزار مربوطه به خوبی سیلان آلیاژ را در حالت نیمه جامد تقریب زده است. نتایج نشان داده که هنگامی که ماده در حالت خمیری شکل باشد، نیروهای شکلدهی کاهش یافته که در این صورت هزینه تولیدی برای قطعه نیز کاهش خواهد یافت. کاهش اصطکاک تا لحظه 35% تغییر در دمای قطعه اتفاق نمیافتد اما پس از آن تغییری در حدود 2% را بوجود میآید. همچنین با کاهش اصطکاک بدلیل کاهش نیروهای وارد بر قطعه، جریان یافتن ماده به صورت آرام میگردد که این امر باعث کاهش عیوبی از قبیل رویهم افتادگی لبهها میگردد. با افزایش نرخ کرنش در ابتدا نیروهای لازم برای شکلدهی کاهش مییابد و سپس بدلیل پدیده کار سختی، نیرو افزایش مییابد.
14
[12] Kang C.G., Cho J.S., Kim K.H., The effect of strain rate on macroscopic behavior in the compression forming of semi-solid aluminumalloy, Journal of material Process Technology, 88, 1999, pp. 159–168.
15
[13] Kang C.G., Kim H.H., Cho S.H., Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties by using nano/micro-indentation and nanoscratch during aging treatment of rheo-forged Al 6061 alloy, Material Science and Engineering A, vol. 485, 2008, pp. 272–281.
16
[14] Kang C.G., Bae J.W., Seol D.Y., Lee S.M., Die life prediction considering thermal fluid flow and solidification phenomenon in rheology process, Journal of material Process Technology, vol. 201, 2008, pp. 336–341.
17
[15] Pouyafar V., Sadough S.A., Hosseini F., Rahmani M.R., Design of experiments for determination of influence of different parameters on mechanical properties of semi-solid extruded parts, Transaction of Nonferrous Metal Society of China, vol. 20, 2010, PP.794-797.
18
[16] Fadavi Boostani A., Tahamtan S., Microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 thixoformed alloys in comparison with gravity cast ones using new criterion, Transaction of Nonferrous Metal Society of China, vol. 20, 2010, pp. 1608-1614.
19
[17] Fadavi Boostani A., Tahamtan S., Effect of a novel thixoforming process on the microstructure and fracture behavior of A356 aluminum alloy, Materials and Design, vol. 31, 2010, pp. 3769–3776.
20
[18] Fadavi Boostani A., Tahamtan S., Microstructural characteristics of thixoforged A356 alloy in mushy state, Transaction of Nonferrous Metal Society of China, vol. 20, 2010, pp. 781-787.
21
[19] Martin C., Kumar P., Brown S.B., Shear rate thickening flow behavior of semi-solid slurries, Matallurgical Transaction A, vol. 4, 1993, pp. 1107-1116.
22
[20] llegbusi O.J., Brown S., Mold filling of semisolid metal slurries, Journal of Material Engineering Perform, vol. 4, 1995, pp. 486-493.
23
[21] Zavaliangos A., Lawley A., Numerical-simulation of Thixoforming, Journal of Material Engineering Perform, Vol. 4, 1995, pp. 40-47.
24
[22] حجتی م.ح.، بخشی م.، حسینی پور س.ج.، مبانی و کاربرد آهنگری سرد و گرم، چاپ اول، انتشارات مازندران، بابلسر، 1385.
25
[23] Hasford W.F. Caddell R.M., Metal forming (mechanics and metallurgy), second edition, prentice hall, 1993.
26
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Composite Plates with SMA Wires, Considering Instantaneous Variations of the Martensite Volume Fraction
In the past few years, extensive improvements have been accomplished in reinforcing the structures through using shape memory alloys (SMAs). These materials absorb or dissipate energy through establishing a reversible hysteresis loop during a cyclic mechanical loading. This unique characteristic of the SMAs has made them appropriate for sensing, actuation, absorbing the impact energy, and vibration damping applications. Instantaneous and local variations of the phases of the SMA wire in the successive loading and unloading events of the vibration have not been accurately investigated by the works published so far. In the present paper, vibrations of composite plates reinforced by SMA wires are investigated, by employing an algorithm that overcomes the mentioned shortcomings. Governing equations are derived based on the Hamilton’s principle and the first-order shear-deformation plate theory. Furthermore, Brinson’s constitutive equations are used to model material properties of the SMA and the time-dependent partial deferential equations are solved using Newmark’s numerical time integration method. The governing equations are solved by a finite element code written in MATLAB software. In the present research, the influence of the instantaneous variations of the volume fraction of the Martensite volume fraction due to variations of the stress components on the material properties of the SMA, hybrid composite, and the recovery load is considered for the first time. Finally, effect of the volume fraction of the SMA wires of each layer and the influence of the amplitude of the abruptly applied load on the vibration behavior of the composite plate is investigated, too.
http://jsme.iaukhsh.ac.ir/article_515344_d388fdd17a9fd6a6a4197ce1483467cd.pdf
2012-06-21
57
70
Vibration
Hybrid composite plate
Shape Memory Alloy
Martensite volume fraction
Super elastic property
M.
Shariyat
shariyat @ kntu.ac.ir
1
Associate Professor, Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
S.
Samaee
2
MSc Student, Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
M.
Moradi
3
MSc. Student, Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Lau K., Vibration characteristics of SMA composite beams with different boundary conditions, Material and Design, Vol. 23, 2002, pp. 741-749.
1
[2] Baz A., Imam K., McCoy J., Active vibration control of flexible beams using shape memory actuators, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 140, 1990, pp. 437-456.
2
[3] Park J., Kim J., Moon S., Vibration of thermally post-buckled composite plates embedded with shape memory alloy fibers, Composite Structures, Vol. 63, 2004, pp. 179-188.
3
[4] Birman V., Shape memory elastic foundation and supports for passive vibration of composite plates, International journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 45, 2008, pp. 320-335.
4
[5] Birman V., Review of mechanics of shape memory alloy structures, Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 50, 1997, pp. 629–645.
5
[6] Jing Z., The Constitutive relation of shape memory alloy and the analysis by the finite element method of shape memory alloy reinforced composite laminated plates, PhD Thesis, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1999, [In Chinese].
6
[7] Pietrzakowski M., Natural frequency modification of thermally activated composite plates, Mécanique & Industries, Vol. 1, 2000, pp. 313–320.
7
[8] Masudaa A., Noori M., Optimization of hysteretic characteristics of damping devices based on pseudo-elastic shape memory alloys, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, Vol. 37, 2002, pp. 1375 – 1386.
8
[9] Gilat R., Aboudi J., Dynamic response of active composite plates: shape memory alloy fibers in polymeric/ metallic matrices, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 41, 2004, pp. 5717–5731.
9
[10] Reddy J.N., Theory and analysis of elastic plates, Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis, 1999.
10
[11] Paiey M., Aboudi J., Micromechanical analysis of composites by the generalized cells model, Mechanics of Materials, Vol. 14, 1992, pp. 127–139.
11
[12] Aboudi J., Micromechanical analysis of composites by the method of cells, Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 49, 1996, pp. 83–91.
12
[13] Lagoudas D.C., Bo Z., Qidwai M. A., A unified thermodynamic constitutive model for SMA and finite element analysis of active metal matrix composites, Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures, Vol. 3, 1996, pp. 153-179.
13
[14] Lagoudas D.C., Bo Z. , Qidwai M.A., Micromechanics of active metal matrix composite with shape memory alloy fibers, In: Voyiadjis, G.Z., Ju, J.W. (Eds.), Inelasticity and Micromechanics of Metal Matrix Composite. Elsevier, New York, 1994, pp. 163–190.
14
[15] Yongsheng R., Shuangshuang S., Large amplitude flexural vibration of the orthotropic composite plate embedded with shape memory alloy fibers, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Vol. 20, 2007, pp. 415-424.
15
[16] Brinson L.C., One-dimensional thermo-mechanical constitutive relations for shape memory alloy: Thermo-mechanical derivation with non-constant material functions and redefined martensite internal variable, Journal of Intelligent Materials Systems and Structures, Vol. 4, 1993, pp. 229-242.
16
[17] Hariri M., John S., Effect of shape memory alloy actuation on the dynamic response of polymeric composite plates, Composites –part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 39, 2008, pp. 769-776.
17
[18] Shokuhfar A., Khalili S.M.R., Ashenai Ghasemi F., Malekzadeh K., Raissi S., Analysis and optimization of smart hybrid composite plates subjected to low-velocity impact using the response surface methodology (RSM), Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 46, 2008, pp. 1204– 1212.
18
[19] Zak A.J., Cartmell M.P., Ostachowicz W.M., A sensitivity analysis of the dynamic performance of a composite plate with shape memory alloy wires, Composite Structures, Vol. 60, 2003, pp. 145–157.
19
[20] Zhang R.-X., Ni Q.Q., Masuda A., Yamamura T., Iwamoto M., Vibration characteristics of laminated composite plates with embedded shape memory alloys, Composite Structures, Vol. 74, 2006, pp. 389–398.
20
[21] Birman V., Rusnak I., Vibrations of plates with super elastic shape memory alloy wires, Journal of Engineering Mathematics, Vol. 78, 2013, pp. 223–237.
21
[22] Bekker A., Brinson L.C., Phase diagram based description of the hysteresis behavior of shape memory alloys, Acta Materialia, Vol. 46, 1998, pp. 3649-3665.
22
[23] Birman V., Chandrashekhara K., Sain S., An approach to optimization of shape memory alloy hybrid composite plates subjected to low-velocity impact, Composite Part B, Vol. 27, 1996, pp. 439-446.
23
[24] Reddy J.N., Theory and analysis of elastic plates and shells, 2nd edition, CRC Press, 2006.
24
[25] Shariyat M., Moradi M., Samaee S., Nonlinear finite element eccentric low-velocity impact analysis of rectangular laminated composite plates subjected to in-phase/anti-phase biaxial preloads, Journal of Solid mechanics, 2012, Vol. 2, pp. (in press).
25
[26] Qatu M.S., Vibrtion of laminated shells and plates, Elsevier Academic Press, 2004.
26
[27] Reddy J.N., Energy principles and variational methods in applied mechanics, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002.
27