Feasibility study of mechanical properties of alginates for neuroscience application using finite element method

Document Type : English


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, 8514-3131, Iran

2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Biotechnology Department., Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

4 Institute of Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Kings College London, London, UK


Alginate is a natural polysaccharide that is extracted from alga sources mainly laminaria. Alginate is readily processable for applicable three-dimensional (3D) scaffold materials such as hydrogels, microspheres, microcapsules, sponges, foams and fibers. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, neuroscience and soft tissue engineering applications. As these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices (ECM) in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. The nervous system is a crucial component of the body and damages to this system, either by of injury or disease which can result in serious or potentially lethal consequences. In this research, the aim is to simulate nerve fibers in Abaqus simulation software by finite element method (FEM). Also, the use of a similar material such as alginate can be used to validate this simulation. Restoring the damaged nervous system is a great challenge due to the complex physiology system and limited regenerative capacity. Currently, most of neural tissue engineering applications are in pre-clinical study, in particular for use in the central nervous system, however collagen polymer conduits aimed at regeneration of peripheral nerves have already been successfully tested in clinical trials. In this study, due to the complexity of measuring nerve endurance, static simulation was used in Abaqus software and the results showed that paired strings are stronger than the number of individuals and the string plays a key role in the center.



    • Lee KY, Mooney DJ. (2012). Alginate: properties and biomedical applications. Progress in Polymer Science, 37(1): 106-26.
    • Castilho M, Rodrigues J, Pires I, Gouveia B, Pereira M, Moseke C, et al. (2015) Fabrication of individual alginateTCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing. Bio fabrication, 7(1): 015004
    • Bergman BS, Kunkel-Bag den E, Schnell L, Dai HN, Gao D, Schwab ME, (1995). Recovery from spinal cord injury mediated by antibodies to neuritis growth inhibitors. Nature 378(6556): 498-501.
    • Maiti UN, Lim J, Lee KE, Lee WJ, Kim SO, (2014). Three-dimensional shape engineered, interfacial gelation of reduced graphene oxide for high rate, large capacity supercapacitors. Advanced Materials, 26(4): 615-9.
    • Li X, Liu T, Song K, Yao L, Ge D, Bao C, et al, (2006). Culture of neural stem cells in calcium alginate beads. Biotechnology Progress, 22(6): 1683-9.
    • Banerjee A, Arha M, Choudhary S, Ashton RS, Bhatia SR, Schaffer DV, et al, (2009). The influence of hydrogel modulus on the proliferation and differentiation of encapsulated neural stem cells. Biomaterials, 30(27): 4695-9.
    • Li X, Feng J, Zhang R, Wang J, Su T, Tian Z, et al. (2016). Quaternized chitosan/alginate-fe3o4 magnetic nanoparticles enhance the chemo sensitization of multidrug-resistant gastric carcinoma by regulating cell autophagy activity in mice. J Biomed Nanotechnology, 12(5): 948-61.
    • Chen C-Y, Ki C-J, Yen K-C, Hsieh H-C, Sun J-S, Lin F-H. (2015). 3D porous calcium-alginate scaffolds cell culture system improved human osteoblast cell clusters for cell therapy. Theranostics, 5(6): 643-55.
    • Wang, G., Wang, X., & Huang, L. (2017). Feasibility of chitosan-alginate (Chi-Alg) hydrogel used as scaffold for neural tissue engineering: a pilot study in vitro. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 31(4), 766-773.
    • Homaeigohar, S., Tsai, T. Y., Young, T. H., Yang, H. J., & Ji, Y. R. (2019). An electroactive alginate hydrogel nanocomposite reinforced by functionalized graphite nanofilaments for neural tissue engineering. Carbohydrate polymers, 224, 115112.
    • Rastogi, P., & Kandasubramanian, B. (2019). Review of alginate-based hydrogel bioprinting for application in tissue engineering.  Biofabrication, 11(4), 042001.
    • Boni, R., Ali, A., Shavandi, A., & Clarkson, A. N. (2018). Current and novel polymeric biomaterials for neural tissue engineering. Journal of biomedical science, 25(1), 1-21.
    • Bu, Y., Xu, H. X., Li, X., Xu, W. J., Yin, Y. X., Dai, H. L., ... & Xu, P. H. (2018). A conductive sodium alginate and carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel doped with polypyrrole for peripheral nerve regeneration. RSC advances, 8(20), 10806-10817.
    • Singh, B., & Kumar, A. (2020). Synthesis and characterization of alginate and sterculia gum based hydrogel for brain drug delivery applications. International journal of biological macromolecules, 148, 248-257.
    • Liu, Q., Li, Q., Xu, S., Zheng, Q., & Cao, X. (2018). Preparation and properties of 3D printed alginate–chitosan polyion complex hydrogels for tissue engineering.  Polymers, 10(6), 664.
    • Bedir, T., Ulag, S., Ustundag, C. B., & Gunduz, O. (2020). 3D bioprinting applications in neural tissue engineering for spinal cord injury repair. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 110, 110741.
    • Wu, Z., Li, Q., Xie, S., Shan, X., & Cai, Z. (2020). In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of a 3D bioprinted gelatin-sodium alginate/rat Schwann-cell scaffold. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 109, 110530.
    • Karvinen, J., Joki, T., Ylä-Outinen, L., Koivisto, J. T., Narkilahti, S., & Kellomäki, M. (2018). Soft hydrazone crosslinked hyaluronan-and alginate-based hydrogels as 3D supportive matrices for human pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal cells. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 124, 29-39.
    • George, J., Hsu, C. C., Nguyen, L. T. B., Ye, H., & Cui, Z. (2020). Neural tissue engineering with structured hydrogels in CNS models and therapies. Biotechnology advances,  42, 107370.
    • Miller, R. J., Chan, C. Y., Rastogi, A., Grant, A. M., White, C. M., Bette, N., & Corey, J. M. (2018). Combining electrospun nanofibers with cell-encapsulating hydrogel fibers for neural tissue engineering. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, 29(13), 1625-1642.
    • Golafshan, N., Kharaziha, M., Fathi, M., Larson, B. L., Giatsidis, G., & Masoumi, N. (2018). Anisotropic architecture and electrical stimulation enhance neuron cell behaviour on a tough graphene embedded PVA: alginate fibrous scaffold. RSC advances, 8(12), 6381-6389.
    • Shaheen, T. I., Montaser, A. S., & Li, S. (2019). Effect of cellulose nanocrystals on scaffolds comprising chitosan, alginate and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.  International journal of biological macromolecules, 121, 814-821.
    • Sahoo, D. R., & Biswal, T. (2021). Alginate and its application to tissue engineering. SN Applied Sciences, 3(1), 1-19.
    • Hasanzadeh, E., Ebrahimi‐Barough, S., Mirzaei, E., Azami, M., Tavangar, S. M., Mahmoodi, N., ... & Ai, J. (2019). Preparation of fibrin gel scaffolds containing MWCNT/PU nanofibers for neural tissue engineering. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 107(4), 802-814.
    • Hu, K., Hu, M., Xiao, Y., Cui, Y., Yan, J., Yang, G., ... & Cui, F. (2021). Preparation recombination human‐like collagen/fibroin scaffold and promoting the cell compatibility with osteoblasts. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 109(3), 346-353.
    • Truccolo, W., Donoghue, J. A., Hochberg, L. R., Eskandar, E. N., Madsen, J. R., Anderson, W. S., ... & Cash, S. S. (2011). Single-neuron dynamics in human focal epilepsy. Nature neuroscience, 14(5), 635-641.
    • Mahdian, M., Seifzadeh, A., Mokhtarian, A., & Doroodgar, F. (2021). Characterization of the transient mechanical properties of human cornea tissue using the tensile test simulation. Materials Today Communications, 26, 102122.
    • Hosseini-Ara, R., Mokhtarian, A., Karamrezaei, A. H., & Toghraie, D. (2022). Computational analysis of high precision nano-sensors for diagnosis of viruses: Effects of partial antibody layer. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 192, 384-398.
    • Eslami, M., Mokhtarian, A., Pirmoradian, M., Seifzadeh, A., & Rafiaei, M. (2020). Design and fabrication of a passive upper limb rehabilitation robot with adjustable automatic balance based on variable mass of end-effector. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 42(12), 1-8.
    • Maghsoudi, A., Yazdian, F., Shahmoradi, S., Ghaderi, L., Hemati, M., & Amoabediny, G. (2017). Curcumin-loaded polysaccharide nanoparticles: Optimization and anticariogenic activity against Streptococcus mutans. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 75, 1259-1267.
    • Mirsasaani, S. S., Ghomi, F., Hemati, M., & Tavasoli, T. (2013). Measurement of solubility and water sorption of dental nanocomposites light cured by argon laser. IEEE transactions on nanobioscience,  12(1), 41-46.
    • Mirsasaani, S. S., Hemati, M., Dehkord, E. S., Yazdi, G. T., & Poshtiri, D. A. (2019). Nanotechnology and nanobiomaterials in dentistry. In Nanobiomaterials in Clinical Dentistry (pp. 19-37). Elsevier.
    • Ghomi, F., Daliri, M., Godarzi, V., & Hemati, M. (2021). A novel investigation on characterization of bioactive glass cement and chitosan-gelatin membrane for jawbone tissue engineering. Journal of Nanoanalysis.
    • Mirsasaani, S. S., Bahrami, M., & Hemati, M. (2016). Effect of Argon laser Power Density and Filler content on Physico-mechanical properties of Dental nanocomposites. Bull. Pharmacol. Life Sci, 5, 28-36.
    • Saeedi, M. R., Morovvati, M. R., & Mollaei-Dariani, B. (2020). Experimental and numerical investigation of impact resistance of aluminum–copper cladded sheets using an energy-based damage model. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 42(6), 1-24.
    • Kardan-Halvaei, M., Morovvati, M. R., & Mollaei-Dariani, B. (2020). Crystal plasticity finite element simulation and experimental investigation of the micro-upsetting process of OFHC copper. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 30(7), 075005.
    • Razavi, M., & Khandan, A. (2017). Safety, regulatory issues, long-term biotoxicity, and the processing environment. In Nanobiomaterials Science, Development and Evaluation(pp. 261-279). Woodhead Publishing.
    • Ghadiri Nejad, M., & Banar, M. (2018). Emergency response time minimization by incorporating ground and aerial transportation. Annals of Optimization Theory and Practice, 1(1), 43-57.
    • Fada, R., Shahgholi, M., & Karimian, M. (2021). Improving the mechanical properties of strontium nitrate doped dicalcium phosphate cement nanoparticles for bone repair application. Ceramics International,  47(10), 14151-14159.
    • Lucchini, R., Carnelli, D., Gastaldi, D., Shahgholi, M., Contro, R., & Vena, P. (2012). A damage model to simulate nanoindentation tests of lamellar bone at multiple penetration depth. In 6th European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, ECCOMAS 2012(pp. 5919-5924).
    • Talebi, M., Abbasi‐Rad, S., Malekzadeh, M., Shahgholi, M., Ardakani, A. A., Foudeh, K., & Rad, H. S. (2021). Cortical Bone Mechanical Assessment via Free Water Relaxometry at 3 T. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
    • Fazlollahi, M., Morovvati, M. R., & Mollaei Dariani, B. (2019). Theoretical, numerical and experimental investigation of hydro-mechanical deep drawing of steel/polymer/steel sandwich sheets. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 233(5), 1529-1546.
    • Saeedi, M. R., Morovvati, M. R., & Alizadeh-Vaghasloo, Y. (2018). Experimental and numerical study of mode-I and mixed-mode fracture of ductile U-notched functionally graded materials. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 144, 324-340.
    • Fada, R., Farhadi Babadi, N., Azimi, R., Karimian, M., & Shahgholi, M. (2021). Mechanical properties improvement and bone regeneration of calcium phosphate bone cement, Polymethyl methacrylate and glass ionomer. Journal of Nanoanalysis, 8(1), 60-79.
    • Khandan, A., Abdellahi, M., Ozada, N., & Ghayour, H. (2016). Study of the bioactivity, wettability and hardness behaviour of the bovine hydroxyapatite-diopside bio-nanocomposite coating. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers,60, 538-546.
    • Karamian, E., Motamedi, M. R. K., Khandan, A., Soltani, P., & Maghsoudi, S. (2014). An in vitro evaluation of novel NHA/zircon plasma coating on 316L stainless steel dental implant. Progress in Natural Science: Materials International, 24(2), 150-156.
    • Karamian, E., Abdellahi, M., Khandan, A., & Abdellah, S. (2016). Introducing the fluorine doped natural hydroxyapatite-titania nanobiocomposite ceramic. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 679, 375-383.
    • Najafinezhad, A., Abdellahi, M., Ghayour, H., Soheily, A., Chami, A., & Khandan, A. (2017). A comparative study on the synthesis mechanism, bioactivity and mechanical properties of three silicate bioceramics. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 72, 259-267.
    • Ghayour, H., Abdellahi, M., Ozada, N., Jabbrzare, S., & Khandan, A. (2017). Hyperthermia application of zinc doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 111, 464-472.
    • Kazemi, A., Abdellahi, M., Khajeh-Sharafabadi, A., Khandan, A., & Ozada, N. (2017). Study of in vitro bioactivity and mechanical properties of diopside nano-bioceramic synthesized by a facile method using eggshell as raw material. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 71, 604-610.
    • Khandan, A., & Ozada, N. (2017). Bredigite-Magnetite (Ca7MgSi4O16-Fe3O4) nanoparticles: A study on their magnetic properties. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 726, 729-736.
    • Khandan, A., Jazayeri, H., Fahmy, M. D., & Razavi, M. (2017). Hydrogels: Types, structure, properties, and applications. Biomat Tiss Eng, 4(27), 143-69.
    • Sharafabadi, A. K., Abdellahi, M., Kazemi, A., Khandan, A., & Ozada, N. (2017). A novel and economical route for synthesizing akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) nano-bioceramic. Materials Science and Engineering: C,71, 1072-1078.
    • Khandan, A., Abdellahi, M., Ozada, N., & Ghayour, H. (2016). Study of the bioactivity, wettability and hardness behaviour of the bovine hydroxyapatite-diopside bio-nanocomposite coating. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 60, 538-546.
    • Shayan, A., Abdellahi, M., Shahmohammadian, F., Jabbarzare, S., Khandan, A., & Ghayour, H. (2017). Mechanochemically aided sintering process for the synthesis of barium ferrite: Effect of aluminum substitution on microstructure, magnetic properties and microwave absorption. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 708, 538-546
    • Heydary, H. A., Karamian, E., Poorazizi, E., Khandan, A., & Heydaripour, J. (2015). A novel nano-fiber of Iranian gum tragacanth-polyvinyl alcohol/nanoclay composite for wound healing applications. Procedia Materials Science, 11, 176-182.
    • Khandan, A., Karamian, E., & Bonakdarchian, M. (2014). Mechanochemical synthesis evaluation of nanocrystalline bone-derived bioceramic powder using for bone tissue engineering. Dental Hypotheses, 5(4), 155.
    • Zarei, M. H., Pourahmad, J., & Nassireslami, E. (2019). Toxicity of arsenic on isolated human lymphocytes: The key role of cytokines and intracellular calcium enhancement in arsenic-induced cell death. Main Group Metal Chemistry, 42(1), 125-134.
    • Hamedani Morteza, P., Reza, F. M., Nasrin, S., Ehsan, N., Shams Ali, R., & Amini, M. (2007). Deterioration of parabens in preserved magnesium hydroxide oral suspensions. Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(21), 3322-3325.
    • Morovvati, M. R., & Mollaei-Dariani, B. (2018). The formability investigation of CNT-reinforced aluminum nano-composite sheets manufactured by accumulative roll bonding. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 95(9), 3523-3533.
    • Nassireslami, E., & Ajdarzade, M. (2018). Gold coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as effective nanoparticles to eradicate breast cancer cells via photothermal therapy. Advanced pharmaceutical bulletin, 8(2), 201.
    • Morovvati, M. R., & Dariani, B. M. (2017). The effect of annealing on the formability of aluminum 1200 after accumulative roll bonding. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 30, 241-254.
    • Morovvati, M. R., Lalehpour, A., & Esmaeilzare, A. (2016). Effect of nano/micro B4C and SiC particles on fracture properties of aluminum 7075 particulate composites under chevron-notch plane strain fracture toughness test. Materials Research Express, 3(12), 125026.
    • Fatemi, A., Morovvati, M. R., & Biglari, F. R. (2013). The effect of tube material, microstructure, and heat treatment on process responses of tube hydroforming without axial force. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 68(1), 263-276.