Investigating the effect of solid solution treatment on the corrosion properties of biodegradable Mg-Zn-RE-xCa (x = 0, 2.5) alloy

Document Type: English

Authors

Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

Abstract

In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the corrosion properties of Mg-Zn-RE-xCa alloy (x = 0, 2.5) was investigated. These alloys were produced using an argon atmosphere casting process and then subjected to vacuum conditions at 400 C for 6 hours under solid solution treatment and quenching in water. The microstructure and fuzzy analysis of heat treatment alloys using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were investigated. Immersion, polarization, impedance, and pH changes test were performed to study alloy corrosion behavior. The results showed that in heat treated samples, the values of secondary phases IM1 (Ca3MgxZn15-x) (4.6 ≤ x ≤ 12) and Mg2Ca increased with increasing calcium content. However, the amount of these phases is reduced by dissolution and quenching in water. The corrosion density of alloy is reduced by adding 2.5% calcium from 488.4 to 315 μA / cm2, which decreases to 126.5 μA / cm2 after 6 hours of heat treatment, indicating improved corrosion resistance of the alloy after heat treatment.

Keywords


[1]     Zheng ,Y,F . Gu ,X,N .Witte ,F  “Biodegradable metals” ,Materials Science and Engineering, 77 , 1–34 , 2014.

[2]     Narayanan T,S,N,S . Park ,S . Lee ,M,H. “Strategies to improve the corrosion resistance of microarc oxidation (MAO) coated magnesium alloys for degradable implants: prospects and challenges” , Materials Science, 60 , 1–71 , 2014.

[3]     Montemor ,M,F. “Functional and smart coatings for corrosion protection: a review”  ,Surface and Coatings Technology , 258 , 17–37, 2014.

[4]     Hornberger ,H . Virtanen ,S . Boccaccini ,A,R  “Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys – a review”. Acta Biomaterialia ;8:2442–2455, 2012.

[5]     Paital ,S,R . Dahotre ,N,B “Calcium phosphate coatings for bio-implant applications: materials, performance factors, and methodologies” Materials Science and Engineering, 66, 1–70, 2009.

[6]     Wu ,G . Ibrahim ,J,M . Chu ,P,K “Surface design of biodegradable magnesium alloys – a review” Surface and Coatings Technology , 233, 2–12, 2013.

[7]     Zhang ,H,X. Wang ,Z,N . Zhou ,Y,G. et al. “Temperature evolution analysis of AZ31B magnesiumalloy during quasistatic fracture” Mater Sci Technol ,32 ,1276–1281 ,2016.

[8]     Chen ,Y . Xu ,Z . Smith,C . et al “Recent advances on the development of magnesium alloys for biodegradable implants”. Acta Biomaterialia , 10, 4561–4573 , 2014.

[9]     Zhou ,L . Liu ,Y . Zhang ,J . et al. “Microstructure and mechanical properties of equal channel angular pressed Mg–Y–RE–Zr alloy”.  Materials Science Technology.;32:969–975 .2016.

[10]  Gu ,X . Zheng ,Y . Cheng ,Y . “In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys”. Biomaterials. ,30 ,484–498, 2009.

[11]  Sanchez ,A,H,M . Luthringer ,B,J,C . Feyerabend ,F . et al. “Mg and Mg alloys: how comparable are in vitro and in vivo corrosion rates: A review”. Acta Biomaterialia. 13, 16–31, 2015.

[12]  Witte ,F . “The history of biodegradable magnesium implants: a review”. Acta Biomaterialia., 6, 1680–1692, 2010.

[13]  Bakhsheshi-Rad ,H,R . Idris ,M,H . Kadir ,M,R,A . et al. “Microstructure analysis and corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg–Ca implant alloys”. Materials and Design. 33, 88–97, 2012.

[14]  Zheng ,Y,F . Gu ,X,N . Xi ,Y,L . et al. “In vitro degradation and cytotoxicity of Mg/Ca composites produced by powder metallurgy”. Acta Biomaterialia.;6:1783–791. 2010.

[15]  Bakhsheshi-Rad ,H,R . Hamzah ,E . Low ,H,T . et al. “Fabrication of biodegradable Zn-Al-Mg alloy: mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities”. Materials Science and Engineering C.;73: 215–219, 2017.

[16]  Wu,G . Ibrahim, J.M . Chu,P.K ‏. “Surface design of biodegradable magnesium alloys _ A review”; Surface and Coatings Technology, 233, 2-12, 2013.

[17]  Bakhsheshi-Rad, H.R., Abdul-Kadir, M.R., Idris, M.H., Farahany, S., “Relationship between the corrosion behavior and the thermal characteristics and microstructure of Mg-0.5Ca-xZn alloys”. Corrosion Science, 64:184–97, 2012.

[18]  Bakhsheshi-Rad, H., Abdellahi, M., Hamzah, E., Bahmanpour, M., “Modelling corrosion rate of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys:The case study of Mg-Zn-RE-xCa (x ¼ 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6 wt%) alloys”; Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 687, 630-642, 2016.

[19]  Zhou, W.R., Zheng ,Y.F., Leeflang ,M.A., Zhou, J.,  “Mechanical property, biocorrosion and in vitro biocompatibility evaluations of Mg-Li-(Al)-(RE) alloys for future cardiovascular stent application”. Acta Biomaterialia. 9 (10):8488–98. 2013.

[20]  Witte ,F . Hort ,F. Vogt ,N . Cohen ,C . Kainer ,S . “Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Corrosion”. Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, 12, 63-72, 2008.

[21]  Bakhsheshi-Rad. H.R , Hamzah, E . Joy , S,L . Medraj. M , Idris. M. H , Mostafa ,A ; “Characterisation and thermodynamic calculations of biodegradable Mg–2.2Zn–3.7Ce and Mg–Ca–2.2Zn–3.7Ce alloys‏”; Materials Science  and Thechnology, 33, 1333-1345 ,2017.

[22]  Zhang ,S,X . Zhang ,X,N . Zhao ,C,L . et al. “Research on an Mg-Zn alloy as a degrad-able biomaterial”. Acta Biomaterialia, 6 (2):626–40, 2010.

[23]  Zhou, T. Chen, D. Chen, Z.H. Chen, J.H. “Investigation on microstructures and properties of rapidly solidified Mg–6wt.%Zn–5 wt.% Ca–3 wt.% Ce alloy”; Journal of Alloys and Compounds , 475, L1-L4, 2009.

[24]  Levi, G. Avraham, S. Zilberov, A. Bamberger, M.; “Solidification, solution treatment and age hardening of a Mg–1.6 wt.% Ca–3.2 wt.% Zn alloy”; Acta Materialia, 54, 523-530, 2006.

[25]  Jun, J. H., Park, B. K., Kim, J. M., Kim, K. T. and Jung, W. J. “Microstructure and Tensile Creep Behavior of Mg-Nd-RE-Ca Casting Alloys”. Key Engineering Materials, 345-346, 557-560, 2007.

[26]  Cai, S. H . Lei, L . Li ,N,F and Feng ,F. “Effects of Zn on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn alloys”. Materials Science and Engineering C-Materials for Biological Applications, 32 (8):2570–2577, 2012.

[27]  Meng, E.C., Guan, S.K., Wang, H.X. and Wang, L.G. “Effect of Electrodeposition Modes on Surface Characteristics and Corrosion Properties of Fluorine-doped Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy”. Applied Surface Science, 257, 4811-4816, 2011.

[28]  Li, Z., Gu, X., Lou, S., and Zheng, Y., “The development of binary Mg–Ca alloys for use as biodegradable materials within bone”. Biomaterials, 29 (10):1329–44, 2008.

[29]  Wang, B., Gao, J.H., Wang, L.G., Zhu, S.J., and Guan, K ., “Biocorrosion of coated Mg-Zn-Ca alloy under constant compressive stress close to that of human tibia”. Materials Letters 70:174–6, 2012.

[30]  Du, H., Wei, Z.J., Liu, X.W., and Zhang, E.L., “Effects of Zn on the microstructure, mechanical property and bio-corrosion property of Mg-3Ca alloys for biomedical application”. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 125 (3):568–75, 2011.

[31]  Fahamin, A, Tabrizi, B. and Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, R . “Synthesis of Calciumphosphate-based Composite Nanopowders by Mechanochemical Process and Subsequent Thermal Treatment”. Ceramics International. 38, 6729-6738, 2012.

[32]  Zhang, E., Yin, D., Xu, L., Lei, Y. and Yang, K . “Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion   Properties and Biocompatibility of Mg–Zn–Mn Alloys for Biomedical Application”. Materials  Science and Engineering C, 29, 987-993, 2009.

[33]  Song, G. L. and Song, S. Z. “A Possible Biodegradable Magnesium Implant Material”.  Advanced Engineering Materials, 94, 298-302, 2007.