Design and optimization of poly lactic acid/bioglass composite screw for orthopedic applications

Document Type : Persian


1 دانشجو

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of advanced medical technology, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran


However, problems such as osteoporosis due to high elasticity of metals relative to bones, and local infections and systemic problems caused by releasing metallic ions have motivated research on replacing metallic screws with non metallic ones. In this study, the composite containing poly-l-lactic acid and bioactive glass fibers were considered for the design of the screw using ABAQUS software (V6.11). The elastic constants were first estimated in micro analysis then transferred to macro analysis for modeling in two-layer situations composed of unidirectional fibers and random fibers (UD/R) and also for modeling in three-layer situations composed of unidirectional fibers, fibers with an angle of ±20 degree in relation to force vector, and random fibers (UD /±20/R) with various percentages of layer thickness. Results show that in the analysis with %65 layers of unidirectional fibers, %10 layers by fibers with an angle of ±20 degree, and %25 of layers with random fibers, flexural modulus, flexural strength, and longitudinal elasticity coefficient were estimated about 22.7 GPa, 347 MPa, and 24.8 GPa respectively, the last one being slightly higher than that of cortical bone. Considering similar results for cortical bones, our designed composite screws are robust enough to replace metal screws for repairing orthopedic fractures


[1] Gefen A., Optimizing the biomechanical compatibility of orthopedic screws for bone fracture fixation. Medical Engineering & Physics, Vol. 24, 2002, pp. 337–347.
[2] Moyen B.J., Lahey Jr P.J., Weinberg E.H., Harris W.H., Effects on intact femora of dogs of the application and removal of metal plates, A metabolic and structural study comparing stiffer and more flexible plates, The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, Vol. 60, 1978, pp. 940–947.
[3] Uhthoff H.K., Finnegan M., The effects of metal plates on post-traumatic remodelling and bone mass. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 65,1983, pp. 66–71.
[4] Moyen B.J., Lahey P.J., Weinberg E.H., Rumelhart C., Harris WH. Effects of application of metal plates to bone, Comparison of a rigid with a flexible plate, Acta Orthopædica Belgica, Vol. 46, 1980, pp. 806–15.
[5] Baidya K.P., Ramakrishna S., Rahman M., Ritchie A., Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites. Journal of Biomaterials Applications, Vol. 15, 2001, pp. 279–89.
[6] Okazaki Y., Gotoh E., Comparison of metal release from various metallic biomaterials in vitro. Biomaterials, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 11–21.
[7] Baidya K.P., Ramakrishna S., Rahman M., Ritchie A., Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites, Journal of Biomaterials Applications, Vol. 15, 2001, pp. 279–289.
[8] Antoniac L., Laptoiu Popescu D., Cotrut C., Parpala R.,Development of Bioabsorbable Interference Screws: How Biomaterials Composition and Clinical and Retrieval Studies Influence the Innovative Screw Design and Manufacturing Processes, Springer Series in Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Vol.1,  2013 , pp. 107-136.
[9] Ramakrishna K., Sridhar I., Sivashanker S, Ganesh V.K., Ghista D.N., Analysis of an internal fixation of a long bone fracture, Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 5, 2005, pp. 89–103.
[10] Fujihara K., Huang ZM., Ramakrishna S., Hamada H. Influence of processing conditions on bending property of continuous carbon fiber reinforced PEEK composites, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 64, 2004, pp. 2525–2534.
[11] Fujihara K., Huang ZM., Ramakrishna S., Satknanantham K., Hamada H., Feasibility of knitted carbon/PEEK composites for orthopedic bone plates, Biomaterials, Vol. 25, 2004, pp. 3877–3885.
[12] Huang ZM., Fujihara K., Stiffness and strength design of composite bone plates, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 65, 2005, pp. 73–85.
[13] Park SW., Yoo SH., An ST., Chang SH., Material characterization of glass/ polypropylene composite bone plates according to the forming. Condition and performance evaluation under a simulated human body environment, Scholarly articles for Compos, Vol. 43, 2012, pp. 1101–1108.
[14] Bradley JS, Hastings GW, Johnson-Nurse C. Carbon fibre reinforced epoxy as a high strength, low modulus material for internal fixation plates, Biomaterials, Vol. 1, 1980, pp. 38–40.
[15] McKenna G.B., Bradley G.W., Dunn H.K., Statton W.O., Mechanical properties of some fibre reinforced polymer composites after implantation as fracture fixation plates, Biomaterials, Vol. 1, 1980, pp. 189–192.
[16] Gillett N., Brown S.A., Dumbleton J.H., Pool RP., The use of short carbon-fiber reinforced thermoplastic plates for fracture fixation. Biomaterials, Vol. 6, 1985, pp. 113–121.
[17] Jockisch K.A., Brown S.A., Bauer T.W., Merritt K. Biological response to chopped carbon- fiber-reinforced peek, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 26, 1992, pp.133–146.
[18] Ali M.S., French T.A., Hastings G.W., Rae T., Rushton N., Ross E.R.S., et al., Carbon fiber composite bone plates – development, evaluation and early clinical experience, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 72, 1990, pp. 586–591.
[19] Schambron T., Lowe A., McGregor H.V., Effects of environmental ageing on the static and cyclic bending roperties of braided carbon fibre/PEEK bone plates, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 39, 2008, pp. 1216–1220.
[20] Armentano I., Dottori M., Fortunati E., Mattioli S., Kenny J.M., Biodegradable polymer matrix nanocomposites for tissue engineering: a review, Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 95, 2010, pp. 2126–2146.
[21] Kharazi A.Z., Fathi M.H., Bahmany F., Design of a textile composite bone plate using 3D-finite element method, Materials & Design, Vol. 31, 2010, pp. 1468–1474.
[22] Harper L.T., Ahmed I., Felfel R.M., Qian C., Finite element modelling of the flexural performance of resorb able phosphate glass fibre reinforced PLA composite bone plates, journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 13–23.
[23] Wang H.W., Zhou H.W, Gui L.L., Ji H.W., Zhang X.C., Analysis of effect of fiber orientation on Young’s modulus for unidirectional fiber reinforced composites, Composites Part B, Vol. 56, 2014, pp. 733–739.
[24] Arteiro A. , Catalanotti  G. , Melro  A.R. , Linde P., Camanho P.P. ,  Micro-mechanical analysis of the in situ effect in polymer composite laminates, Composite Structures , 2014 ,vol. 116 , pp. 827–840.
[25] Sun C. T., Vaidya R. S., prediction of composite properties from a representative volume element, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 56, 1996,  pp. 171-179.
[26] Ronald F., Gibson,Principles of composite material mechanics, New York: Taylor & Francis 2nd edition, 2007.
[27] Harper L.T., Qian C., Turner T.A., Li S., Warrior N.A.. Representative volume elements for discontinuous carbon fibre composites – Part 1: Boundary conditions, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 72, 2012, pp. 225–234.
[28] Kardos J. L., Critical issues in achieving desirable mechanical properties for short fiber composites, Vol. 57, 1985, pp. 1651-1657.
[29] Medeiros R., Moreno M.E., Marques F.D., Tita V., Effective Properties Evaluation for Smart Composite Materials, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 2012, pp. 362-370.
[30] Younes R., Hallal A., Fardoun F., Hajj Chehade F., Comparative Review Study on Elastic Properties Modeling for Unidirectional Composite Materials. Composites and Their Properties, Vol. 17, 2012, pp. 391-408.
[31] Potluri P., Manan A., Mechanics of non-orthogonally interlaced textile composites, Composites: Part A, Vol. 38, 2007, pp. 1216–1226.
[32] Felfel RM, Ahmed I, Parsons AJ, Rudd CD. Bioresorbable composite screws manufactured via forging process: pull-out, shear, flexural and degradation characteristics .The Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol. 18, 2013, pp. 108–122.
[33] Nordin M., Francle, V.H., Basic biomechanics of the musclo-skeletal system, 3rd edition, Lippincott Williams & wilkins, New York, 2001.
[34] Alford J.W., Bradley M.P., Fadale, P.D., Crisco, J.J., Moore, D.C., Ehrlich, M.G., Resorbable fillers reduce stress risers from empty screw holes, Journal of Trauma, Vol. 63, 2007, pp. 647–654.
[35] Ahmed I., Lewis M., Olsen I., Knowles J.C., Phosphate glasses for tissue engineering: Part1, Processing and characterisation of aternary-based P2O5–CaO–Na2O glass system, Biomaterials, Vol. 25, 2004, pp. 491–499.
[36] Navarro M., Planell J.A., Bioactive composites based on calcium phosphates for bone regeneration. Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 44, 2010, pp. 203–233.
[37] Felfel R.M., Ahmed I., Parsons A.J., Rudd CD., Bioresorbable screws reinforced with phosphate glass fibre: manufacturing and mechanical property characterisation, The Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol. 17, 2013, pp. 76–88.
[38] Shikinami Y., Okuno M., Bioresorbable devices made of forged composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and poly-L-lactide (PLLA), Part I. Basic characteristics, Biomaterials, Vol. 20, 1999, pp. 859-877.
[39] Qiaoling Hu., Baoqiang Li., Mang W., Jiacong Sh., Preparation and characterization of biodegradable chitosan/hydroxyapatite nano-composite rods via in situ hybridization: a potential material as internal fixation of bone fracture, Biomaterials, Vol. 25, 2004, pp. 779–785.
[40] Furukawa T., Matsusue Y., Yasunaga T., Shikinami Y., Okuno M., Nakamura T., Biodegradation behavior of ultra-high-strength hydroxyapatite/poly (L-lactide) composite rods for internal fixation of bone fractures. Biomaterials, Vol. 21, 2000, pp. 889-898.
[41] Hasegawaa, Sh., Ishiia Sh., Tamuraa   J., Furukawaa T., Neoa  M., Matsusueb  Y., Shikinamic Y., Okunoc M., Nakamura T., A 5–7 year in vivo study of high-strength hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide) composite rods for the internal fixation of bone fractures, Biomaterials, Vol. 27, 2006, pp. 1327–32.
[42] Russias J., Saiz E., Nalla R.K., Gryn K., Ritchie R.O., Tomsia A.P., Fabrication and mechanical properties of PLA/HA composites: A study of in vitro degradation, Materials Science and Engineering C, Vol. 26, 2006, pp. 1289 – 1295.
[43] Goto K. , Akiyama H. ,  Kawanabe K. ,  So K. ,  Nakamura T. , Use of  HA–PLLA Composite Screws to Fix Acetabular Bone Graft in Cemented THA: Absorption Pattern of Screws in Six Patients, Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 493-494, 2012, pp. 422-425.